Northward: Peary's 1908-09 Expedition

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Northward: Peary's 1908-09 Expedition

This historic blog follows Robert Peary's 1908-09 North Pole expedition from New York to the North Pole and back. The blog will be updated daily over the next fifteen months using various crew members' journals. You can read about what individuals were experiencing on the Roosevelt and while sledging across the Polar Sea exactly one hundred years ago to the day.

Acknowledgements  |  Terms and conditions for material used in this blog.

Filter by author: Robert E. Peary | Donald B. MacMillan | George Wardwell | Ross Marvin

Entry Date Author

So hot that we can't do much

09-30-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Newburgh, New York
George Wardwell

We arrived here about 9 oclock this morning. Got a pilot from the stern Pilot boat outside, there isn't anyone allowed onboard or anyone from the ship onshore until after the parade which is tomorrow, we leave here at 4 in the morning for 42nd Street N.Y. It is fine today but we had quite a breeze of head wind most all night. We are trying to clean up a little today but it is so hot that we can't do much. The Bar. is 29.66 quite low.

1909 09303009/30/1909 George Wardwell

Looks like fog

09-29-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Between Sandy Hook, CT and New York, NY
George Wardwell

We have been close by the wind all night and most all day. It is ahead now and they have just taken the sails in. It isn't very rough now only a little roll have seen 3 or 4 large steamers pass today on their way to New York from across. It is partly cloudy today, looks like fog around the horizon. The Bar. is 29.82 going up quite fast now, was 29.76 this morning.

1909 09292909/29/1909 George Wardwell

To keep out of crowds

09-28-1909 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Sandy Hook, Connecticut
George Wardwell

We had quite a breeze So. East all night and quite a sea she rolled pretty bad breezing up again now So. East but the Barometer is rising so expect we will get North winds for awhile. We are not running very fast are going in Sandy Hook way to keep out of crowds, can anchor down by Navesink until we go into the parade. The Bar. is 29.76 rising a little.

1909 09282809/28/1909 George Wardwell

Onshore at Eagle Island to supper

09-27-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Between Eagle Island, ME and Sandy Hook, CT
George Wardwell

We arrived at Eagle Island at [unknown] P.M. yesterday and left at 10 P.M. for Sandy Hook. It blew hard for a while in the night and has been rough ever since, and very rough last night smashed one of our skylights, the wind blew it over. Capt., Dr. McMillan, Borup, Mat, Mr. Sayre and myself were all onshore at Eagle Island to supper; hot roast lamb, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, strawberry preserves and peaches, two kinds of cake & doughnuts and some nice biscuit too. The Bar is 29.82 falling.

1909 09272709/27/1909 George Wardwell

I wish we would go into Boston

09-26-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Eagle Island, Maine
George Wardwell

We had a good sailing breeze all night and rain made 8 ½ knots most of the time and not rough any, got here at Eagle Island at 12.30 P.M. still raining hard. The Com. has been onboard but I dont know weather [sic] he is going to N.Y. with us or not. We are to land some things for the Com, McMillan [sic] and the Cook, I wish we would go into Boston for a day I would send a lot of my stuff home. The Bar. is 29.98.

1909 09262609/26/1909 George Wardwell

Sail on since 9 this morning

09-25-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Between Sydney, N.S. and Eagle Island, ME
George Wardwell

We made pretty good time last night and today, have had sail on since 9 this morning. Have seen quite a lot of Nova Scotia fishermen. We passed Sable Island about ten this forenoon. Has been fine and clear all night and so far today, but it looks now as though it would be foggy before long. The Bar. Is 29.94.

1909 09252509/25/1909 George Wardwell

They blew the horn and dipped the flag

09-24-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Between Sydney, N.S. and Eagle Island, ME
George Wardwell

We had quite a breeze of head wind all night, the wind is ahead now but not strong and it is quite clear, sun shines part of the time we passed a Boston fisherman this forenoon (The Vanasa) they blew the horn and dipped the flag cheered etc. When they saw us they put about and ran at right angle of their course to salute us. We are going better today made 7 ½ knots all my watch. The Bar. Is 29.93 rose very little.

1909 09242409/24/1909 George Wardwell

One of the sailors got left

09-23-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Near Sydney, Nova Scotia
George Wardwell

We left Sydney at 8.30 last night but didn't come very far, for the boys wasn't [sic] feeling very well, we didn't make more than 25 miles all night about ten hours, one of the sailors got left. Went onshore and didn't come back when they told him to. Waited for him a couple of hours after they all got onboard and he was about 4 ½ hours behind hand, Dennis Murphy was his name. They had shiped [sic] another fellow to clean up around on the way to N.Y. but he had to take Dennis place. It is foggy today and quite a breeze ahead, there was people onboard until the last minute, and the Capt. of the Tyrian and Mr. Baldwin of the Zieglar Expedition came out to Low Point with us and went back in the Tyrian's launch, there was a big time in Sydney The Bar. Is 29.91 started up a little.

1909 09232309/23/1909 George Wardwell

We sailed from Sydney

09-22-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Between Sydney, N.S. and Eagle Island, ME
George Wardwell

The Commander and family left for home today by train. We sailed from Sydney on the same day for Eagle Island, Maine, the summer home of the Commander and his family. Here we landed his and my personal equipment, since Eagle Island is in Casco Bay and not far from my home in Freeport.

1909 09222209/22/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

The band has started in again

09-21-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Sydney, Nova Scotia, CAN
George Wardwell

We left St. Pauls Island lat night at 8 oclock and arrived here at 1.30 P.M. after running slow all night, and were received here amid cheers and whistles from a large number of steamers yachts and motor boats, factorys, miens etc. and thousands of people along the shores and wharfs on the roofs of buildings and everywhere they could get a chance to see the ship. Ships, boats, houses and hotels were decorated with English and American flags. There is fireworks, guns and the City band at it tonight. We lay alongside the wharf awhile but had to get out to anchor there were so many people onboard we couldnt get around and it was very hot onboard too. And the cook couldn't get a chance to get dinner. We got a lunch and had a big supper at five oclock. Mrs. Peary, Marie & Robert came out in the Yacht Sheelan. The people said it wasn't hot but it seemed very hot to us as we had only left the vicinity of Icebergs night before last. We saw lots of them coming down from Battle Harbor, and the first night out was cold and windy and rained a good part of the night. One of the motor boats got in between two tow boats and got upset there was only one man in it they saved him but it was a narrow chance for him, the boat sank. They are blowing horns onshore now, lots of noise, and the band is just playing God Save the King, so I suppose that is the last of it. The Bar. is 30.05 now. Encore and the band has started in again.

1909 09212109/21/1909 George Wardwell

Presented him with a huge bouquet

09-21-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Sydney, Nova Scotia, CAN
George Wardwell

Left St. Pauls Island last night about 9 o'clock, going along at about half speed so as not to be sighted too early from Low Point. At about 6 a large white steam yacht was seen approaching with American flag at fore topmast and British at the main. At 4.30 it was near enough for us o see Mrs. Peary, Marie and Robert on the bridge. A boat was lowered and they were soon aboard. Soon others met us in small power boats, excursion steamers, and sailing yachts proudly escorting us into the harbor where yards and yards of steam were blown off in our honor. Thousands of people banked the shore and wharfs cheering and waving flags. As Commander landed a delegation of school girls met in with wreaths and bouquets of flowers. The daughter of Mayor Richardson stepped forward and making a little salutary address presented him with a huge bouquet.

1909 092121b09/21/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Great heavens!

09-20-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
St. Pauls Island
George Wardwell

When we came on deck this morning we were close to St. Paul Island. After breakfast we ran in close to the Government Station on the east side. Mr. J. W. Campbell who is in charge came off in one of his life boats, piloted us to a good anchorage and took Captain, Mr. Rood and I ashore. This was the nearest to “Home sweet home” in fourteen months. Here were the trees, and grass, and cows, sheep, horses and hens and a telephone to the main land. And the milk! Great heavens! As we had not had any for more than a year, and as this was the real article, rich, thick, cream, I can never forget it. Nor in fact the dinner and the royal way in which we were entertained. Was weighed in – 178 lbs, the heaviest I have weighed for some time. Learned here that the reporters are still waiting for us at No. Sydney, and that a tug is waiting for us off Cape North. Will leave here some time tonight.

1909 09202009/20/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Perhaps they will forget

09-20-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
St. Pauls Island
George Wardwell

We arrived here at St. Pauls Island at 8 oclock this morning and anchored we are not due in Sydney until tomorrow forenoon according to program so stopped here. We could got there today by noon if we had let her go right along for we had a spanking breeze and were making from 8 to 9 ½ knots an hour and I cut her down so she only made about six and a half last night and the sails did the most of that. The people of Sydney have planed [sic] to meet us in all the boats they can get then there will be a reception for the Com. & Capt. I suppose onshore. We hear the streets are all decorated with flags. There are to be 12 little girls present flowers to Com. Peary on the deck of the Roosevelt on our arrival in Sydney Harbor, so we hear, according to the papers there is to be quite a time but perhaps they will forget it by the time we get there. The wind is West here and we are anchored under the lea of the Island on the sea side of it, but it is quite smooth there isn’t any sea to amount to anything. The Bar. is 30.12 now falling quite fast has been up to 30.20 this morning, I expect we will get a breeze before we get in. One of the large dogs killed one of the pups a few minutes ago.

1909 092020b09/20/1909 George Wardwell

One tramp steamer

09-19-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Off the Labrador Coast
George Wardwell

Running down through the straits with a fair wind and sea one the quarter. Passed one tramp steamer which saluted us.

1909 09191909/19/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

The salutes of many vessels

09-18-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Off the Labrador Coast
George Wardwell

We left Battle Harbor this morning in company with the Associated Press tug amid the salutes of many vessels and boats and the boom of the canon on the hill. The Strachona (Strathcona) came in last night with Dr. Grenfell on board. He came over later in the evening and was introduced to us all. Examined my arm where I was shot Aug. 11 and offered some good suggestions as regards my thumb. His secretary, a Mr. Frank Sayre, a Williams man 1909, goes to Sydney with us.

1909 09181809/18/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Were obliged to leave them

09-17-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

A quiet day after having so many reporters around yesterday. Raining and thick fog. Rowed down to a big island at the end of tickle to try and catch two of our dogs. They were so wild we were obliged to leave them. Marked out our North Pole flag in Mr. Croucher’s loft.

1909 09171709/17/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

37 reporters on board

09-16-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

It has been fine today and they have done a lot of painting. The Str. Tyrian the Canadian Cable Str. arrived this morning with 37 reporters onboard. They kept us pretty busy until about 5 P.M. when they all went onboard to be ready to leave by daylight they lay outside of the harbor 2 or three miles. The Com. got a storehouse onshore and gave them a little lecture on the trip kind of a outline and I will bet that no two will write it up alike. Took pictures of about all in furs and 40 times without. They say there is a big time awaiting us at Sydney. The Bar. is 29.75 tonight and cloudy.

1909 09161609/16/1909 George Wardwell

Wrote a number of letters

09-15-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

Wrote a number of letters home today to send by the tug in case she starts out. Still receiving and sending messages. Received word from Point Amour that the Tyrian had passed. The conversation with Bosun I remember as follows: Whitney, Billy and the Bosun were all at Amoratok [Anoratok] when Dr. Cook arrived. Asked to see orders of Bosun from Peary. Told Bosun he had no right to use his stores, was like taking money out of his pocket. A lot of his stores were still left which he gave to the Esquimaux on leaving. Was never denied stores but given all he needed and provisioned for sledge trip. Remarked that he had gone beyond Peary’s record. Had a watch with one hand on it. Said he would not take $20,000 for flag. Gave this to Whitney, also sledge.

1909 09151509/15/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Ship about cleaned

09-14-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

Another fine day, The Tow boat Douglas & Thomas is still here, the other steamer hasnt shown up yet. They say there are 26 reporters on her. I was up on the hill to the wireless station today they are keeping that busy. They have the ship about cleaned will begin painting tomorrow. The Bar. is 30.14 arisen quite a lot today.

1909 09141409/14/1909 George Wardwell

Three reporters on board

09-13-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

A stormy day, blowing from the southeast and raining. About noon the tug Douglas H. Thomas came in from Sydney with three reporters on board – Regan of the Associated Press, Jeffries of the same, Mr. Foster of Halifax, Rood of Harper’s Magazine. Say that another steamer “Tyrian” is coming full of reporters.

1909 09131309/13/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

All her colors

09-12-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

Ship decked out today with all her colors in honor of Marie’s birth-day. It has cleared off into a beautiful day, one of the best. The Prospero came in today, the Captain coming on board to see the Commander. Received a telegram from the New York World yesterday offering us $500 for a story of our trip north. As the Commander’s story had gone in I telegraphed them too late.

1909 09121209/12/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

That is all I ask

09-12-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

It has been clear and cool today quite a number of people onboard although there has been quite a breeze from the No. East. We are getting all kinds of Marconigrams make you laugh the excitement there is going on about the discovery of the North Pole. If they will give me my wages that is all I ask. We got a Marconigram today that there was a Canadian Government steamer bound here with a lot of American reporters onboard and Canadians too I suppose. I should think there must be quite an excitement for them to undertake a trip up here, when they can get all they ask for by wire. The Bar. is 29.96 been down to 29.63 today.

1909 091212b09/12/1909 George Wardwell

It makes us laugh

09-11-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

The wire’s are still hot and the wireless is doing some fluttering also. It makes us laugh the controversy that is going on. The newspapers are asking a good many questions. It has been cloudy and rained part of the day so havent painted any today only washing the paint work and it will take a couple of days before they begin to paint. The Bar. is 29.58 falling again.

1909 09111109/11/1909 George Wardwell

Still busy

09-10-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

On account of it being such a poor harbor here the Captain decided to go to Sizes Harbor to paint, but Mr. Croucher let us have some heavy chains mooring us forward and aft preparing us to meet any weather which may come. Still busy back and forth to the wireless station.

1909 09101009/10/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Am very busy

09-09-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Battle Harbor, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

Will remain here for some time painting and cleaning ship. Am very busy carrying dispatches up to the wireless station for Commander.

1909 09090909/09/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Going back and forth

09-08-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Battle Harbor, Newfoundland, CAN
George Wardwell

Arrived in Battle Harbor this morning running aground at mouth of harbor but coming off later in the high water. Went ashore at once with a bunch of telegrams to the Marconi Wireless Station. Have been there all day or going back and forth with Marconigrams.

1909 09080809/08/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

The newspaper people doubt it

09-07-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Off the Labrador Coast
George Wardwell

We left Smokey Tickle this forenoon at 11.30. The wind has blown a gale and raised part of the time the wind came around to the West about 4 this morning and is quite smooth now. Just before we left we heard that Dr. Cook reported one day ahead of us that he reached the Pole on the 21st of Apr. last year. Got it by wireless, but it seems that the Newspaper people doubt it. There have been a Mail steamer in here from St Johns and a N.F.L.D. Government steamer since we came here. The Bar. is 29.67 went down to 29.26 last night.

1909 09070709/07/1909 George Wardwell

Sent the wireless message

09-06-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Smokey, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

We arrived here at Smokey Tickle last night at 7.30 in quite a breeze of head wind and it blew hard all night and so far today 1. P.M. We are to stop here until the wind goes down or changes. The Com. sent the Wireless message from here of our arrival on the coast and discovery of the North Pole. We got 8 tons of coal from The S.S. Fiona N.F.L.D. Government steamer are to go into Hawks harbor for more coal and water. I hope we will get enough there to take us to Sydney. I expect we will have to go into Chattaux [Chateau Bay] to send the story to the N.Y. herald. The Bar. is 29.34 falling yet.

1909 09060609/06/1909 George Wardwell

"Have had the best year of my life"

09-05-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Turnavik, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

Arrived in Turnavik last night about 7-30, and it certainly seemed strange to see signs of civilization again, to see houses and white women. Backed in to dock for nineteen tons of coal. Here we had a taste of fried cod, the first for over a year, and some other good things as well. So hot in our room that I slept out on deck in the square sail. Left Turnavik before breakfast for the run to “Smoky” [Smokey] our first telegraph station. Arrived here just at dark, blowing strong, so dropped both anchors. Commander went ashore with a bunch of telegrams. I sent three, one to Lettie, one to Jess, and one to Dr. Abercrombie. “Arrived here today with Pole on board. Have had the best year of my life. Love to all. Dan” “Top of the earth found at last. Greetings to family and boys. D. B. MacMillan” Within half and hour of our arrival the British Revenue Cutter “Fiona” came in, later visited by Commander and Captain to answer such questions from the brother of the Premier of Canada as “What was your latitude at the North Pole!”, “And your longitude?”!!! Heavens! how can a man be so ignorant?

1909 09050509/05/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Evidently our compasses are wrong

09-04-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Off the Labrador Coast
George Wardwell

Clear again, thank the Lord, bright sunshine and light wind from the south. Sighted the Labrador about 9 o’clock. Expected to do this some hours ago as the Captain has been running her in all night. Evidently our compasses are wrong or possibly variation as given on our charts. Meridian altitude gave me a latitude 55° 14’ 41”, off what is called the “farm-yard” on the Labrador. We are now at full speed hoping to make the Turnavik tonight.

1909 09040409/04/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Experiencing another miserable day

09-03-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Off the Labrador Coast
George Wardwell

We are experiencing another miserable day, rain, wind and heavy sea. At dinner we could not keep a thing on the table, everything on the move. The result of a heavy cross sea from the south-ward. To the south of us there must have been quite a heavy gale of wind. It is impossible to sit up with any comfort so will go to bed early and talk over the good times we have had sledging with George.

1909 09030309/03/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Saw a star cross behind the moon

09-02-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Near Cape Chidley, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

We had a nice breeze all night and came along fine and should make Cape Chudleigh [Chidley] at 6 oclock tonight, havnt got the sun very often and were not as far along as we thought we were, have coal for about 3 more days and it will take about 2 ½ to Turnivik [Turnavik] where the Capts father is. They have 30 or 40 tons for us so they told us onboard the Schr. The Bar. is 29.78 now. We saw a star cross behind the moon last night. I saw once before when I was on the Creedmoor at Bar Harbor.

1909 09020209/02/1909 George Wardwell

Had a good breeze after us

09-01-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Near Cape Chidley, Labrador, CAN
George Wardwell

We stopped last night at 12 oclock on account of the heavy ice. We struck it a few times and it made her tremble. One would think it was coming right through there was quite a sea and it would rise up and come against us pretty hard. We got under way again at 4 oclock this morning and have had a good breeze after us ever since. No. East and foggy and quite a sea running now. We are about off Cape Chudleigh [Chidley] now. Saw a few large icebergs today. The Bar. is 29.46 been down to 29.33 this morning.

1909 09010109/01/1909 George Wardwell

Last meal of walrus hearts

08-31-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Davis Strait
George Wardwell

A gale of wind from the north-east. It was roll, pitch and toss all night in the midst of drifting pans against which we crashed repeatedly, but the Roosevelt can stand any amount of such punishing. Last evening our spanker jibed over breaking the boom about ten feet from the jaws. Fortunately it was trimmed in pretty well thus preventing it from smashing in through the cabin. In this wind and sea it would have made a wreck of our quarter deck. Early this morning, Connors and the Bosun saw another bear on an ice cake apparently very much interested in our appearance, not minding in the least the icy spray dashing over him. As we were and are "laying to" under double reef foresail, jogging back and forth, endeavoring to keep clear of drift ice, we do not care to alter our course for a bear. Our last meal of walrus hearts yesterday. We look forward now to the fresh fish of Labrador.

1909 08313108/31/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Crashing and smashing

08-30-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Davis Strait, Near Capes Dyer and Washington
George Wardwell

Blowing and raining and snowing all day. Fortunately we have a fair wind so we are making good progress south passing the Arctic Circle probably about noon. The land to the west of us near Cape Dyer and Cape Washington is much more attractive than I had pictured it to be, being high and bald and cut up into deep fiords. Early this morning Dennis saw a polar bear, was about to call the Captain when it disappeared. Commander has offered a half pound (2 ½ dollars) to the first man who sees a bear; consequently everyone when on deck feels like borrowing a few more eyes. Have passed a number of walrus asleep on pans of ice, one herd of ten. During the thick weather today we almost smashed into a high cliff going full speed right at it. Have altered our course somewhat off shore. Sea and wind gradually increasing. Another night of standing on our heads! and crashing and smashing of everything not tied down.

1909 08303008/30/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

The land looks about the same

08-29-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Kater, Baffin Land, CAN
George Wardwell

The wind went to the No. East and blew until this morning quite heavy and there was a heavy sea. The wind is light now No. E. and not much roll, the sea has gone down a lot. We made Cape Koter [Kater] Baffin Land about 10 oclock last night. We were 48 miles ahead of the log, it has been thick so couldn't get an observation and had to go by the log. The land looks about the same as it does up along hilly and covered with snow in the interior, as far as one can see. We are not very close to the land here are crossing a bay. The Bar. went down to 28.78 it fell quick and arose quick it is 29.69 now. It is cloudy today. Can see the sun once in awhile.

1909 08292908/29/1909 George Wardwell

So cold and windy

08-28-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Davis Strait
George Wardwell

Raining and blowing hard. Barometer very low. Laying to under foresail in lea of pack, beating back and forth waiting for wind to subside. So cold and windy and wet on deck that we have put all the pups down the hold.

1909 08282808/28/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Didn't do a very brilliant thing

08-27-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Davis Strait
George Wardwell

We had it calm all night and made between 7 & 8 knots all night but there is quite a breeze now pretty near ahead and we are not making more than 7 knots now. It has been cloudy ever since we left and rained some in the night. Whoever sent Mene the Eskimo up into this country didn't do a very brilliant thing for all he had was the clothes he stood in. They didnt give him a gun, traps, ammunitions, provisions or clothes and if the Schr. had got past us I guess he wouldnt had a thing. The Bar. is 29.56 and rising.

1909 08272708/27/1909 George Wardwell

Last of our Eskimo contingent

08-26-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Off Cape York, Greenland
George Wardwell

Snowing during night, + everything white this morning. The watches working through the night cleaning + clearing the ship. Sent the last of our Eskimos contingent ashore immediately after breakfast, then have up anchor + got under way at nine a.m. Light e-ly air, sun trying to shine continuously. Dense cordon of large bergs, berg pieces, + trash ice. Emerged from this at 11- a.m. At 12 M. set fore + afters to a light S.E. breeze, water smooth. Both boilers in commission making about 8 knots, snugging ship for possible heavy weather.

1909 08262608/26/1909 Robert E. Peary

And they can see about as far as anybody

08-25-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape York, Greenland
George Wardwell

We left No. Star bay at 5 oclock yesterday afternoon and arrive here at 10.30 this forenoon. We had quite a breeze in the night coming down head wind but it is fine today and seems quite warm although we are lying close to a glacier and there are hundreds of icebergs around the bay and close by outside. We got our letters here they were all brought here by a Whaler the only one that came out this year so she took the whole six copies, and landed them here. We dont expect to leave here before morning as they are to land three families here and their belongings and the Walrus we killed for them The Bar. is 29.45 now. Dr. Cook sent word by the whaler from Upernivik that he got the pole the 20th of last April, and the two Eskimos he had with him said he only left the land for two days and went back South to Jone's [sic] Sound, he claimed to found new land but the Eskimos say they didnt see any. And they can see about as far as anybody.

1909 08252508/25/1909 George Wardwell

Another Southerly

08-24-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
North Star Bay
George Wardwell

This is another fine calm day there was a thick fog this forenoon but it has cleared away in the harbor but still hangs around outside. They are just about finished coaling have only the sweepings to hoist onboard now. We didnt get afloat until 4.30 P.M. yesterday and they worked all night watch & watch The Com. has given Mene a shot gun rifle ammunition provisions etc. He has a good outfit to start with and ought to be able to look out for himself now as well as the rest of the Eskimos. The Bar. is 29.38 another Southerly.

1909 08242408/24/1909 George Wardwell

Our first news

08-23-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
North Star Bay
George Wardwell

At 2 o'clock this morning we met the relief vessel Jeanie of St. John's N.F. Was sent up by Bridgeman of New York with a triple purpose - to carry back Dr. Cook, to carry back Whitney who has remained at Etah a year for the shooting and to bring coal to us. Many of the men received letters from home also clippings giving us our first news for more than a year. We hear that Taft is President, that Henry H. Rogers is dead, that there has been a terrible earthquake, that Harvard defeated Yale at football and in rowing, that Shackleton succeeded in getting within 111 miles of the South Pole., that the Danmark Expedition lost three men by starvation in mapping out the north-eastern coast of Greenland - poor fellows, little did I think when looking for their records at Cape Morris Jesup to see if they had reached there that they were beneath the snow around on the east side. We talked something of running down past Cape Bridgeman. If we had possibly we might have found the bodies. After getting out letters we headed for Oo-wah-we-ee, North Star Bay. In entering the harbor crossing to the east side to get as near the water supply as possible we ran aground. Fortunately it was dead low water so we came off some hours later. To our surprise we found here a mission station, the first to be established in North Greenland. On landing two missionaries who are evidently half breeds, Esquimaux and Dane, came along the shore to meet us, taking off their hats and bowing. Handed me a letter written in English saying that these two were here to preach the gospel, etc. One's name was Olsen. We went over to the house and had coffee with then, served by a nice looking woman in small cups on a table covered with a white table cloth! It brings us to the fact that we are nearing home again, much to our regret. Later they came on board and were entertained by the Commander. The Jeanie came in a few hours after and tied up to out quarter and helped pull us off. As soon as we were afloat we began loading coal keeping it up all night. Later in the day Fuller the N.Y. reporter on the Herald and Whitney and I walked over to the west side to visit the tupiks. Found six, very large and well equipped with skins and cooking utensils.

1909 08232308/23/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

I got your letter

08-22-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Ittibloo, Greenland
George Wardwell

We are just about ready to leave Itibloo. Went into Tickelehanny last night and got away from there this morning early and got here at 7.30 A.M. it is 1. P.M. now and the Eskimos that are going ashore here are getting into the boat now. We got nine more Walrus yesterday afternoon. The Bar. is 29.54 We had quite a breeze early this morning. We arrived here at No. Star bay at 7.30 A.M. and ran aground as usual and they are just going to try again to get her off 1 P.M. We met the Gasolene Schr. Jeanie Capt Samuel Bartlett about 15 miles up from here and they came back here with us. they have about 50 tons of coal for us which will be very acceptable for we would be pretty short by the time we got clear of here and the Capts Father has left 30 or 40 tons at Turnivik Labrador for us. I got your letter from the Schr. at 2.45 this morning and was very glad to hear you were all well. The Seconds wife died last February. She was a young healthy woman and was only sick two days left two small children. I suppose we will begin to take in coal as soon as we are afloat again, about all hands got letters from home and Borup had a lot of clippings about Polar expeditions hitting Wellman, and guessing where Peary is. We have got rid of all but 4 more Eskimo families and will leave them at Cape York. Mene the Eskimo that has been in New York so long came up on the Schr. to stay here. Mr. Whitney says he is going over on the Baffin land side hunting Polar Bear. Says he hasnt had enough hunting yet. 9 large Bull Walrus stove one of the boats in two places the last day they were out after them. it is nice and calm today. The Bar. is 29.52. The Danish have built a mission house here to help the people here along the coast.

1909 08222208/22/1909 George Wardwell

Went ashore in style

08-21-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Near Koo-kan
George Wardwell

Left Etah last night at 6 o'clock. Going along slowly today under one boiler and square sail. Drizzling rain. Called in at Nerky where we landed Ar-klio and Al-nay-ah. We are all sorry to see Ar-klio go, he has been a fine boy around the galley. I fitted him out in a good coat and vest so he went ashore in style. From here we went to Iq-lu-an-hamey where In-ah-loo, Ang-el-o-gib-so, and Ki-me-ark-shah left us. For making my net chain I gave In-ah-loo a sleeping bag, soap, matches, and canned goods, which pleased her very much. Our next stopping place was Koo-kan, the most prosperous looking place we have visited. The tupiks are very large and lighted by the use of transparent skin. Here the meat of walrus, seal, narwhal and white whale was stacked in piled. Sig-loo and Ah-lit-ah, We-shark-ob-sie and Ader-enig-wah, Oo-blooyah and Ar-ka-ting-wah all left us here. Had the good luck to trade for a "Gjoa" plate.

1909 08212108/21/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

We are sorry to leave them

08-20-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Near Etah
George Wardwell

Finished loading and unloading everything today. Leaving Etah about 6 o'clock. Here we leave Eging-wah and In-u-waho, Oo-tah and Clay-ing-wah. As we left the harbor all the Esquimaux waved their good-byes from the rocks. Some of them have been with us for a year, and we are sorry to leave them, probably never to see them again. We shall miss In-u-waho for many a day. With square sail we are passing Cape Alexander with a fair wind bound for Nerky. Have questioned nearly all of the men who were with Dr. Cook on the ice. They are all agreed upon this one point - that they were never out of sight of land and did not spend more than three nights on the sea ice. They did discover two islands to the south-west of Cape Thomas Hubbard. Were back so early that ducks and gulls eggs were perfectly fresh. Did not care to cross Jones Sound, but preferred to winter there in an igloo. The Innuits say they could have crossed in their boat. Sledges were so heavy with food when they got back to land that Dr. Cook did not increase the load from cache.

1909 08202008/20/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

All say he lies

08-19-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Etah
George Wardwell

A disagreeable night + villainous forenoon, rain + snow. In afternoon clearing, + in evening clear, then strong n-ly wind. A heavy floe drifting up the Fiord is likely to give us trouble before it goes out. Filling tanks with water, working on machinery, + getting things in shape. More information in regard to Cook. Natives all say he lies when he says he went far on the ice.

1909 08191908/19/1909 Robert E. Peary

Getting information

08-18-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Nearing Etah, Greenland
George Wardwell

Wind shifted during the night, swinging over stern inshore soon after midnight + catching our heel on the rocks where we hung until about noon today, then went in against the rocks, ran out a long gangway + got the coal on board. Got away from rocks + anchored in cove about nine o'clock. Captain Sam Bartlett told the Bosun he had landed 60 tons. Captain Robert + the Chief think there are but 45. Have been busy myself paying off my people, + getting information in re Cook + other matters of the past year here. One year ago today we left for the north.

1909 08181808/18/1909 Robert E. Peary

Seems like summer now

08-17-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Nearing Etah, Greenland
George Wardwell

The wind went down early yesterday morning and they started in hunting up until 12 last night and got 32 more Walrus making 63 in all. We landed walrus for five familys [sic] in one place and for one in another and for one in an other at Cape Calhoon [sic] and are off for Etah now. Light breeze No. West and a fine day seems like summer now. The Bar. is 29.44 going up very slow.

1909 08171708/17/1909 George Wardwell

Started for Etah

08-16-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Borden Bay
George Wardwell

Steamed back to Ku-kan landing the "perd-look-swi" pf all the Innuits who are to remain here also enough meat to last them for some time. From here we proceeded to Nerky, remained a short time, and started for Etah.

1909 08161608/16/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Quite a sea going

08-15-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Off Herbert Island
George Wardwell

It blew hard and rained all night and is blowing harder and heavier rain today. We have dragged away from our anchorage twice and are working back to it again now under full speed with one boiler and can hardly make any headway against the wind. The Barometer went down from 29.31 at 2 oclock this morning to 28.85 at 7.30 this morning and is 29.84 now 12.30 P.M. There is quite a sea going. We are at the mouth of Inglefield gulf off Herbert Island. Got 5 more Walrus yesterday afternoon and last night making 31 in all onboard all dressed and piled up on deck it makes quite a lot of meat. McMillan is getting along fine.

1909 08151508/15/1909 George Wardwell

We were well fixed

08-14-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Off Herbert Island
George Wardwell

Wind set in again after midnight with great force + more to the S.W. + continued until noon with rain + at the first snow. With the chain cable on board again, + the anchor in good holding bottom, we were well fixed, much better in fact than if we had been in the Harbor of Etah. This afternoon + evening we have obtained more walrus by sending out the boats from the ship, killing them in the water, + towing them in. This brings our score up to [31].

1909 08141408/14/1909 Robert E. Peary

Other stuff they couldn't describe

08-13-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Off Herbert Island
George Wardwell

It rained and blowed hard all night and all day so far. They got hold of the chain and have it up in sight are fasting a line on it now so as to fleet along to the end and get it to the Windless. The wind has dropped off all at once, but it still rains. They have had lots of rain and Southerly winds this summer. The Eskimos said that sometime after we left to go North from Etah last year a month or more as near as I can get at it that the air was full of smoke and dust for two or three days smelled like burning wood, and other stuff they couldn't describe. The wind was from the South East, and as there isnt any woods within 1000 or 1500 miles of here we thought it might be the Volcano over in Iceland that had been in eruption. The Bar. is 29.59 now.

1909 08131308/13/1909 George Wardwell

No change from yesterday

08-12-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Off Herbert Island
George Wardwell

We are lieing [sic] at anchor yet off Herbert Island a gale of wind So. West and rain. We drag once in awhile and have to stern ahead again. McMillan is getting along fine. The Bar. is 29.58. No change from yesterday.

1909 08121208/12/1909 George Wardwell

Blood washed off

08-11-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Off Herbert Island
George Wardwell

Stormy today so concluded not to get up to breakfast, jumped out of bed, and jumped back again. Perhaps this saved my life as I might have changed my position. At 10 o'clock while dreaming of home was shot with heavy Winchester rifle (40-82) through the shoulder and through the arm, the bullet passing close to my eye. The bullet came from mess room through two walls and was found on the floor of my room after the shooting. After 3 hours and half I was stitched up and blood washed off.

1909 081111b08/11/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

It gave me a start

08-11-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Off Herbert Island
George Wardwell

The wind is blowing heavy So. West today so we are not out after walrus. The Com. sent a gun out for me to have cleaned and I thought I would unload it so no one would get hurt cleaning it, and it went off and through two rooms and shot McMillan through the arm and glanced through his shoulder. It gave me a start I don't know what made it go off the hammer was up and it was a large rifle with seven cartridges in it. I helped the dr. fix McMillan up and about the time we got him fixed up the ship went adrift. Lost anchor and chain. It ran out wasn't made fast in the chain locker in the hold. We left one anchor and chain in Etah last fall so we only have a small anchor and chain to anchor with now. McMillan says his arm dont pain so much now as it did when it was first done. The Bar. is 29.58 today.

1909 08111108/11/1909 George Wardwell

Got into a bunch

08-10-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Off Herbert Island
George Wardwell

Rather a windy day + not over favorable for walruses. Got under way after breakfast, steamed over past east end of Herbert I. + along its north side after walruses. Obtained one or two here + there, up to 10, then in the evening got into a bunch off the west end of Herbert I. + got 10 more, making a total of 20 for the day, + 25 in all. One young one was brought on board alive + not injured. We then steamed in near Herbert I. + came to anchor in 13 fathoms at 11- p.m.

1909 08101008/10/1909 Robert E. Peary

We had quite a job

08-09-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Inglefield Gulf
George Wardwell

We are up in Inglefield gulf today distributing natives and looking for Walrus. One of the firemen in opening a valve unscrewed the head out of it this morning and it blew out so we had quite a hot job getting it in again. Were over an hour before we could get the steam off so to get at it. The Com. told me the natives said Dr. Cook went down past to Upernovik this spring. When he got back to Etah he didnt have any dogs, so I think he had to carry his provisions. One or two natives went down to Upernovik with him. The Bar.is 29.85 going down again.

1909 08090908/09/1909 George Wardwell

No trace has ever been found

08-09-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Inglefield Gulf
George Wardwell

Turned in about 7 o'clock last evening or a good sleep. Woke up at nine. Sat up and dressed and found that is was nine in the evening and that I had only slept two hours. We soon came to Koo-kan, a village of five tupiks and twenty-four people, a very prosperous looking place. The tupiks were the best I have seen, large, some twelve feet long and with a transparent skin porch imparting a large amount of light to the interior. Meat of narwhal and the white whale was stacked up in piles as well as hundreds of little auk and murres. Every boy and man seemed to have a ky-ack. Three of the best men were taken on board to assist in the walrus hunt. From here we could see Veerhoff Glacier, named after Veerhoff, a Yale man, assistant to Commander Peary in 1891-92. Veerhoff left McCormick Bay to walk overland to Robertson Bay. He did not appear at the appointed time. Searching parties were sent out, remaining six days in the field searching thoroughly every foot of the ground travelled up over the Sun Glacier and down the Veerhoff Glacier where foot steps were found. It is supposed that he fell into one of the numerous holes on the surface of the glacier. No trace has ever been found. Steaming out of Robertson Bay we rounded Iq-lu-ak-suak Point, past McCormick Bay and the site of Commander's house in 1891-1892, past Cape Cleveland toward Bastion Point to clear the shoal ground of the Redcliffe Penn. and in to Karnah, where we found a very large settlement of six tupiks. Taking the best walrus hunters we left here for Ittibloo where we found no tupiks, but a mile further up near the glacier there were three, one inhabited by old Ih-quah and his third wife, also Tu-cumah's mother with her second husband, Tucumah's brother, a fine looking fellow. Here there was a very interesting meeting of Oo-queeah and the wife whom he left a year ago to go north with us. After such a long parting one would naturally expect some sort of a demonstration of affection but as long as I observed them there was not the least sign at they knew each other, and yet as I understand, she was and is very fond of him and has been faithful to him since he has been gone. The scene at this particular time is not the exception but the rule, not so much love or emotion exhibited as an animal would show after separation from its kind. It was the same when Bill and We-shark-ob-sie returned from America and when Eva-loo met her mother yesterday after being gone a year.

1909 080909b08/09/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Could see my house

08-08-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Nerki, Greenland
George Wardwell

Got under way about 3- a.m. passed C. Sabine 4.30 a.m*. Could see my house in Payer Harbor. Fine morning, calm, banks + streams of low fog lying close to water. Kept on down to Isabella, then headed for C. Chalon. Came upon some walrus + secured 4. Put one boiler out of commission to save coal. Wind came fresh from north. Passed Chalon at 2.30 p.m. Saw tupics at Nerki, went ashore in boat, found Ahsayoo, Tuugwee, Teddylingwah. Learned Cook returned this Spring, on foot, no dogs, had been south to Jones Sound. He went to Upernavik with Koolootingwah, Itookashoo, + Pewahto, before my 2 men Panikpah + Pooadloonah came down. These native no [sic] nothing of any ship this summer. They say everyone at Etah well, + that Bo'sun has live M.O. also M.O. + fox skins, + narwhal horns for me. *We pass C. Sabine (i.e. get out of Kane Basin) this time 39 days earlier than 3 yrs. ago in 1906, + 32 days earlier than the British Expedition in 1876.

1909 08080808/08/1909 Robert E. Peary

Soft, mushy ice

08-07-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Buchanan Bay
George Wardwell

A large number of narwhal playing in the open leads about the ship. Could not get them owing to small leads and rotten ice. Got under way about 1 A.M., proceeding rapidly south now at 3.30 A.M. As we approached Cape Sabine it breezed up rapidly, the barometer dropping to 29.73. Soon it developed into a gale, water flying across the ship in sheets, everything loose on deck flying about and some of it overboard. The boat hanging to the davits amidships came down with a crash, one of the bolts pulling through. The other boats were lowered to the deck. Once under the land we steamed slowly along past Cocked Hat Island up into Buchanan Bay opposite Rice Strait. Pushing through some soft, mushy ice we fastened to the edge of the pack in smooth water. The barometer is rising rapidly again and wind moderating.

1909 08070708/07/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Haven't moved since

08-06-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Near Cape Frazer
George Wardwell

We got two little runs during the night and this forenoon. The seizing came off the wheel rope and we had to stop and fix it and [fog] came in thick and we havn't moved since. It snowed about all night and is snowing now. They think they saw Cape Sabine and Cairn point before it got thick and thought it wasnt more than 3 miles to open water but cant tell. The ice seems well broken up where we are but it is packed in thick. The Bar. is 29.58 now.

1909 08060608/06/1909 George Wardwell

Waiting for a lead

08-05-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Near Cape Frazer
George Wardwell

Only stopped for about two hours during the night. We are now passing Cape Derville at 6.30 this morning. Has snowed quite a lot during the night. Tied up to a floe off Cape Frazer until midnight taking in a supply of water and waiting for a lead.

1909 08050508/05/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Fired to full steam

08-04-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Near Cape Calhoun
George Wardwell

We went north a little, after midnight with the ebb tide. About 6- a.m. the wind began again from the south, water began to make to the south + at 10.20 a.m. we started. In a little while conditions seemed so favorable both boilers were put in commission + fired to full steam. Kept moving continuously without stopping or (? -lling), but in a torturous course through the various leads. Going improved, passed Hans I. to the east of us at 5- p.m., then Franklin I + C. Constitution. At 8- p.m. were past Crozier I + at 10- p.m. past C. Calhoun. Sky very dark ahead of us as if abundance of water, but fog coming on. Narwhal + seals seen. A hood seal on cake of ice off C. Calhoun. Great contrast between Grant Land + Greenland shores; former white to water's edge with recent snow, latter free of snow. A bay in the John Brown Coast north of Hans I another abreast of Hans I + another between Hans I. + Franklin I.

1909 08040408/04/1909 Robert E. Peary

Hoping we can't get through

08-04-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Near Cape Calhoun
George Wardwell

When I awoke this morning the Roosevelt was under way, started about 10 o'clock, and has been hustling south ever since under both boilers. We are now at 11 P.M. in Kane Basin working through scattered floes with plenty of open water in sight, although we cannot see far as it is snowing. George and I are hoping we can't get through. We hate to think of going home.

1909 080404b08/04/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Narwhal about all day

08-03-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Cracroft
George Wardwell

Wind changed to the north this morning + blew for most of the day, not strong but very raw. As a result we have moved south somewhat faster + tonight a little before midnight the point of C. Baird is in range with western end of Bellot I., C. Cracroft is abreast of us, Capes Lawrence, Joseph Goode + Constitution are visible to the south from the deck + C. Union is just out of sight from the deck. A narwhal shot from the ship but sank, another dog hood seal secured (wt. 624#) + 2 seals on the floe south of us. In evening a short tailed skua, + a sandpiper (purple?) out of a flock of 12 to 15 which flew about the ship. Narwhal about all day.

1909 08030308/03/1909 Robert E. Peary

Before breakfast

08-02-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Near Cape Lieber
George Wardwell

A fine night + a decent day with wind fresh from the south. Eskimos harpooned a narwhal after midnight which was finally killed + brought on board before breakfast. A female 12' 8" long weighing 1700 lbs. Sketch + photo of transverse section of head. 4 seals also secured during day, one in the water, + 3 on the ice south of us, where 8 could be seen from the masthead at one time. A bearded seal also seen. Total wt. of meat for day 2000 lbs.

1909 08020208/02/1909 Robert E. Peary

Working South

08-02-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Near Cape Lieber
George Wardwell

It has been cloudy all day and all night. The Eskimos got another Narwhale early this morning that weighted about 1700 lbs. and a seal that weighed 60 lbs so we have another good feed of meat for all hands and the dogs. There is a lot of blubber on a Narwhale and also on a seal so there isnt so much meat as one would think by the size of them. We are working South very slow and in towards Grinell land for this sheet is swinging around like a revolving door and taking us with it so we may work around below it in 3 or 4 days and there is quite an open space the other side of it. It is a little narrower below the sheet and this one fills the place full. We cut out one boiler a few days ago and are saving some coal now. I told the Com. I thought it would be as well while we were drifting around and if we got a chance to run it wouldnt take long to get steam on the other one too. The Bar. is 29.34 fell some this morning.

1909 080202b08/02/1909 George Wardwell

The pan gave way

08-01-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Near Cape Lieber
George Wardwell

Felt like walking this morning so started out at 1 a.m. along the edge of the lead toward Cape Lieber. Was unable to reach land on account of open water so continued following the lead out into the middle of the channel. Curious enough to know the width of the pan to which we are tied I paced it back almost directly across and found it to be 3 ¼ miles. In attempting to get on board the edge of the pan gave way, fortunately I has just grasped a rope so only dropped in up to my waist. My kamiks immediately filled up with water. This added weight and my heavy clothes prevented me from pulling myself out in spite of my utmost exertions. Five or six of the Eskimos seized the rope and pulled me up like so much dead weight.

1909 08010108/01/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Cold and cloudy

07-31-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

It was cold and cloudy all night snowed some but today the sun has been out a little while at a time The land on both sides are covered with snow. We got around another large floe this morning and I think the largest we have seen yet is just ahead it reaches from land to land and cant see water either side of it yet. We are at the entrance of Kennedy Channel and the floe fits in like a wedge in a big tunnel. We are about 12 or 15 miles outside of Lady Franklin bay where we lay so long last time. We didnt get out of there until the 26th of August. They have fired at a few seals this morning but havent got any yet, got one or two sea pigeons last night. The Bar. is 29.48 going down for a southerly wind I expect and that should drive this large floe over to one side or up the Channel so we can get around it.

1909 07313107/31/1909 George Wardwell

Another dirty night

07-30-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Lady Franklin Bay
George Wardwell

Another dirty night, a fine drizzle of damp snow falling constantly. This forenoon foggy. Gained less than a mile on each of 2 starts during night. At 12.30 p.m. with lifting of fog started again + steamed steady till 3.30 reaching + crossing a good sized lake lying the channel off the middle of L.F. Bay [Lady Franklin Bay]. Made fast to ice on southern side witch [which] is still thinner than that in Robeson Channel but hardly broken up at all. At 11- p.m. we are nearly abreast of C. Baird with a freshening s-ly breeze. C. Union is "hull down" to the north. Gave anchor last night to bank one boiler + run under the other. Today have given strict orders in regard to economy of coal, + that all ashes are to be saved for an emergency. We are through Robeson Channel, + conditions seen favorable, but we are ahead of the season, + it may be a long time yet before we reach Etah. We are now in a position where there seems little likelihood of our being again pocketed in L.F. Bay + we are tonight 28 days ahead of 3 yrs. ago. A sounding off middle of L.F. Bay gave 438 faths., soft shiny mud. A small seal killed this morning. Dictated to MacMillan today the introduction + conclusion to "Notes on Birds of the Western Hemisphere north of the 82° parallel". Three years ago this morning I stepped on board the R- at Shelter River, from my western trip.

1909 07303007/30/1909 Robert E. Peary

Trying to keep awake

07-29-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Near Distant Cape, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Have been drifting slowly south all day long, squeezing through the narrowest part of Robeson Channel. Today we put a low horizontal bar on the main deck and have taken some exercise which I hope may be conducive to sleep. I have at last succeeded in forcing day and night onto their respective places again, sleeping at night and trying to keep awake during the day.

1909 07292907/29/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Passed the 82nd parallel

07-28-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Between Cape Sumner and Birthday Cape
George Wardwell

Bright + clear + cold this forenoon then cloudy, foggy + warmer. This forenoon we were nearly down to Wrangel Bay + steadily drifting south. At 4- p.m. on a line between C. Sumner + Birthday C. Sounding this forenoon 368 fathoms. Eskimos went for the big seal after midnight with 2 sledges + teams, a kayak, + 2 floats. Returned before breakfast. Length of animal 8' 1", wt. 675 to 700 lbs. In evening Borup shot another small seal. Soon after 4- p.m. nipped + listed to starboard about 10° with stern lifted somewhat more than a foot. Passed the 82nd parallel late in afternoon.

1909 07282807/28/1909 Robert E. Peary

Forever on the watch

07-27-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
82° 8’
George Wardwell

Snowing hard all day and blowing from the south'ard. Yesterday we make rapid progress south to Latitude 82° 8'. This wind may drive us back to Cape Union. George beat the Huskies at their own game today getting two seals right out from under their nose, so to speak, as they seem to be forever on the watch, generally preventing any of us from getting a shot. The first one sank before the kyack could reach it but the second we shall feed on tomorrow.

1909 07272707/27/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Strawberry shortcake

07-26-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Union, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

I expect Maynard is quite a big fellow and eating strawberry shortcake today. While I am eating Narwhale and canned goods. We drifted South a couple of miles last night and today, but are stationary now. I think we have gone North a little with the tide We have had a light No. East wind for the last 24 hours and thick of fog had a little sunshine this forenoon but it is thicking up again now. Couldnt see the land for some time but it shows a little now. The Bar. is 29.52 going up today.

1909 07262607/26/1909 George Wardwell

A little but not enough

07-25-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Union, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It has been raining and snowing all day, it made a little ice in the pools last night and hasn't melted today. We have seen a few seals and Narwhales today but havnt got any yet. The ice separates a little but not enough so we can get anywhere it is in very large floes and they only swing around a little with the tide, close up on us on the ebb tide and opens a little on the flood tide. The wind has been No. East light since last night. The Bar. is 29.46 falling all day.

1909 07252507/25/1909 George Wardwell

Finally killed one

07-24-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Union, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The Esks got after the narwhal again + following them along the leads finally killed one a mile or two to the eastward. Borup went out + photoed it, then it was cut up + brought to ship on 3 sledges. Movement of ice compelled sending boat to ferry the party + their loads across. Arrived on board just before breakfast. While eating another rose close to ship. Later another was harpooned but got away with line + float. This evening 4 more rose near ship + the kayaks being away I permitted shooting at one, but without success. The one obtained was a male 16 ft. long, with perfect horn 6 ft. long. Twist of this horn reverse of an ordinary screw. Contents of stomach remains of fish + squid. Outer layer of skin ½" thick, skin proper ¼" + blubber 3" to 4". Hump on nose contains very fine quality of oil. Eyes brown, smaller than eye of an ox, pupil slightly elongated horizontally. Eskimos + dogs all so full tonight they can eat no more. Wind changed to north today but not blowing strong.

1909 07242407/24/1909 Robert E. Peary

Figured up

07-23-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Union, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty-six years ago today the Proteus was crushed and sunk in the ice near Cape Sabine, Lat. 78° 52' Long. 74° 25', the crew retreating in boats to Upernavik. Blowing and raining nearly all day. Have figured up number of miles I have sledged since ship came to winter quarters - total 1662; was in the field 161 days.

1909 07232307/23/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Evidently a rare specimen

07-22-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Union, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It has been raining and blowing all day. The Inuit have killed five black guillemot, one evidently a rare specimen with all dark wings. We are still off Cape Union drifting back and forth with the tide a few miles north and south.

1909 07222207/22/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Another groan of disappointment

07-21-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Union, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We are still in the ice off Cape Union. At first I thought it might be monotonous but there is something going on all the time, so much that it is hard for us to sleep. Rifles and shot guns are going about all the time. This morning before breakfast E-ging-wah shot six black guillemots. A short time after he secured what we classify as a herring gull, much to our surprise as there is no record of one having been so far north. This afternoon Karko shot a fulmar petrel. Both of these birds are good additions to our bird list. After supper as I was holding a shooting match among the Eskimos, three shots each at fifty yards, Commander yelled from the deck "Ka-lill-o-mah", narwhale! For the next two or three hours we were an interested crowd watching the Eskimos maneuvering in their ky-acks. Oo-late succeeded in getting within a few feet of one resting with his back out of water; threw the harpoon and but missed him. A little later a yell went up from the bow of the ship on seeing Ah-lettah make a throw. Another miss and another groan of disappointment at the loss of so much fresh meat of which we have none on board. Since leaving winter quarters we have had two meals of black guillemot.

1909 07212107/21/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Waiting for a break in it

07-20-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Near Cape Union
George Wardwell

We followed a lead across the Sound about an hour last night made a little Southern but drifted back again today, are fast to the ice now waiting for a break in it, it is in very large sheets of last winters ice from 1 to 4 feet thick and reaches from shore to shore and we cant get past, there is a strong breeze from the South today, expect that will break it up some as it moves a little with each tide. We see a seal once in awhile but the Eskimos get so excited in trying to get the first shot at it that we havnt got any yet, have got two or three small birds. We are out of fresh meat all canned goods now. The Bar. is 29.54 falling again today.

1909 07202007/20/1909 George Wardwell

Began going south

07-19-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Near Cape Union
George Wardwell

Wind sprung up from S- fresh again with turn of tide soon after midnight, + at 1.20 got away + at 4- a.m. stopped against a large field of rotten ice a little S- of C. Union, unable to get into Lincoln B. Sounding (97 F. rock). About 7- p.m. began going south with the ice on the flood tide, + gradually were pushed in nearer to the shore. Several seals + black guillemots seen, also Burgomaster Gull.

1909 07191907/19/1909 Robert E. Peary

Waited for a chance

07-18-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Near Cape Ransom
George Wardwell

We steamed down to the old winter quarters of 1905-06. Here there are heavy bergs offering a protection to us against the pack going back and forth in the tide. Taking on the few remaining dogs and filling our water tanks we started down toward Ransom. Here we met one seasons ice completely blocking the channel and ran into a niche near the shore about a mile below Ransom and waited for a chance. Here I made my last collection of flowers in Grant-Land - it might not be.

1909 07181807/18/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A year ago today

07-17-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Early this morning the pieces of ice to which the R- has been moored lately floated at the height of the tide, leaving the ship entirely unprotected. Fortunately the ice did not come in, though the wind all day was S.E. (on our starboard quarter) + diagonally on shore. Entire day spent in blasting ice away from the propeller with small charges of dynamite. Propeller freed at 6- p.m. + Captain then went away in boat to examine some apparently suitable shelters among the grounded floebergs towards Ransom. He soon came back, we go under way, + moved down abreast of R-s position of 3 yrs. ago, + made fast between 2 grounded floebergs with ice inside of use so we were not in danger of being forced aground. While on our way the wind swung round as it did day before yesterday + blew violently off shore. We were snug + fast by 8- p.m. Here I had all the dogs brought on board + put down in the hold. Just a year ago today we left Sydney. Pemmican, biscuits, tea, sugar, coffee, oil, tents + ammunition on deck ready to throw out onto ice. Records, photos, knots eggs, fur clothing in bags also ready to go over, ditto guns + rifles.

1909 07171707/17/1909 Robert E. Peary

Ice loosened about the hull

07-16-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Clearing this morning with S-ly wind. The water all closed up. Again early this morning more ice loosened about the hull + floated up. The water abreast of us formed again, + after dinner the wind swung suddenly to S.W. + blew very fresh. Got up steam with wood under one boiler, pumped out the bilge + got all the outboard pipes clear of ice. Unable to start propeller. Filled other boiler. Everything brought off from the shore, + the anchor + cable taken in.

1909 07161607/16/1909 Robert E. Peary

Rather a classic locality

07-15-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

About 4- a.m. more of the ice sticking to R- hull loosened + came up. A decent morning, then cloudy, then rain + finally a driving N.W. snow squall. Strolled up to the R- cairn. This is rather a classic locality now. From the cairn can be seen the Alert's cairn, Petersen's grave, + the Marvin memorial. One black guillemot shot last night abreast of the ship + six today + this evening.

1909 07151507/15/1909 Robert E. Peary

Boxed and packed

07-14-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Today I tried the knot's nest with the help of Au-quee-ah. First cut a ditch all around it then pared it away carefully to the size of the box. Then wrapped it carefully in thick paper and lifted it from the ground. Have boxed and packed it solid for transportation.

1909 07141407/14/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

About a ships length

07-14-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It has been cool and partly cloudy with the wind from So. East in the morning to No. West this afternoon and tonight. The ice went off a long ways today, but there is about a ships length of heavy ice between us and open water. Which I expect will go at any time. We are cleaning and painting the Engineroom and overhauling the valves of the main Engine found the rings stuck and also in the H.P. Cyl. The deck department have the coal onboard that was landed in the fall and have been taking the provisions onboard today, it will take them another day or so. McMillan and a couple of the Eskimos went up and got the Knots nest that they found the eggs in a couple of weeks ago they had to dig away the dirt around it and drive a board under and take it up ground and all, as there isn't any nest built it is only on some moss on top of the rocky ground. The Bar. is 29.77 tonight. Was up to 29.85 last night. One of the women by the name of Coo u pea had a girl baby about six oclock this morning.

1909 071414b07/14/1909 George Wardwell

The ship broke out

07-13-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It was fine this morning early it came up cloudy and has been cold all day, then it began to snow at 3.30 P.M and is snowing hard now. The ship broke out of her cradle of ice about 4 this morning, and a little of the ice broke off outside of us. Only about the length of the ship now between us and open water. The Bar. is 29.78 now. Went down to 29.48 last night.

1909 07131307/13/1909 George Wardwell

Aeolian requiems

07-12-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A fine summer day in every respect. Warm + bright, with a light air from S.W. Pronounced mirage of the Greenland Coast, the ice to the N. + C. Henry to the N. W. A small seal shot by the Eskimos abreast of the ship soon after midnight. Moved sewing machine into tent on quarter deck + set Wiseman to work on some sample clothing. Started a woman on a pair of kamiks, + another on bearskin trousers. Kyutah + family off to Pullen in forenoon. After dinner the men erected the Marvin memorial on the hill above the ship in accordance with my instructions. Later I went up to it. The cross faces true N. From it the Arctic Ocean, the Greenland Coast, the savage bluff of C. Henry, the United States Range, + Mt. Pullen are visible. A mile away is the Roosevelt cairn which Marvin built 3 years ago. Through the Arctic summers + winters the winds will sing Aeolian requiems on the wires which guy the cross in place.

1909 07121207/12/1909 Robert E. Peary

Belonged to Brainard

07-11-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The Sun shone a little while this morning, and they it got cloudy, and has sprinkled a little since dinner. The ice is moving back and forth with the tide and some of it is pretty heavy. It hasn't come in here hard enough yet to cause any pressure but expect it will before it breaks so we can get out. The last time it broke up June the 29th. Three Eskimos just arr. from Lincoln bay they said the ice was breaking up some out in the Channel. One of them brought a trunk from Lincoln bay in a sling with a strap across his head. It was one they threw off his sledge when they were returning from Fort Conger. I think they said it belonged to Brainard. The Bar. is 29.85 tonight falling a little.

1909 07111107/11/1909 George Wardwell

We may have some decent weather

07-10-1909 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A fine day though crisp + fresh. This morning the uplands were still white with yesterday morning's snow, though near sea level the snow had disappeared. Barom. still rising + I hope with the excess of moisture removed from the atmosphere we may have some decent weather. The 3 Esks. who went to Black Cliffs Bay came back this morning with the driftwood. They said the river has carried away the petrified wood. They brough in a young fox, a Bo'sun bird's nest + a brant egg. Sent Karko + Inughito up to Pullen with supplies for the 2 women. Soon after they left the women came in. At night they went up again. An enormous big hummocky floe which went down on the flood this morning, came back this evening on the ebb, close to our shelling, + grounded on the ship extending out from the river. The crew cleaning up + painting the forecastle today.

1909 07101007/10/1909 Robert E. Peary

Snowed all night

07-09-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It snowed all night until about twelve oclock today the land was all covered with snow. Part of it has melted off now as the sun has been out for a couple of hours. There was quite a breeze from the No. east all night. The ice is moving back and forth with the tide but hasn't come in against us yet expect it will at any time as it is quite heavy. The Capt. with the Eskimos got back about 2.30 P.M. He said the Channel wasn't open yet but we might get into Lincoln bay if we were out of here, although there was a large floe against Cape Union. He thought that Wrangle bay was broken up some but not moved out any. If the wind is right I expect we will get out on the next new moon tides as they are the highest for this month. The Bar. is 29.85 tonight has gone up fast tonight.

1909 07090907/09/1909 George Wardwell

Grabs his gun and blasts away

07-08-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Walked up to visit the tern colony and long tailed auck's nest. As there were only five eggs, no increase since my last visit, I decided to photograph and take the eggs. Tried 1/25 on the 8 stop and 1/5. There are a large number of terns (Sterna paradisaea) at the colony which act very much as if they had eggs there, but thus far I have only been able to secure one. The Commander has kindly loaned me his fine Parker shot gun for securing specimens. Today I tried it on an ivory gull, knocked him down but he was carried by the strong wind so far out on the ice that I was unable to get him. This morning three of the Inuit and the Captain started for Lincoln Bay, the former to bring up the Conger specimens which we were obliged to leave there, and the latter to take a look at the Channel ice. Game is becoming quite plentiful about the ship. Whenever anything appears every Inuit grab his gun and blasts away. Last night they got a king eider.

1909 07080807/08/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Kind enough to wait

07-07-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A fine drizzling rain nearly all day. Went up with the Capt. to put in a new ferry by using a smaller boat in a narrower part of the stream. Our large bateau is just the thing. We fastened her to a bridle fastened to both banks and she works like a charm. While waiting for the women to help them across I walked up to the tern colony. There among the terns I detected again my strange bird. Came back to ship after the shot gun and hurried up again. He was kind enough to wait for me so I got him alive, wounding him slightly in the wing.

1909 07070707/07/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Nearly upright

07-06-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It has been blowing a gale all day and widening the lead. The ship is so nearly upright that I knocked out the blocks from under one end of the table letting it down to a level. Four of the women are on the other side of the river unable to get across owing to the volume of water. Their husbands went up last night and threw food to them across the water. They are gone today. Probably back among the rocks to sleep.

1909 07060607/06/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Will have to overhaul

07-06-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It has been cloudy about all day, and we have had a couple of So. West squalls, and it is blowing strong now from the So. West. The ship has righted up quite a lot today. The ice has opened up off the side about six inches tonight. We had steam on the Engine and pumps today, the pumps all started but The Engine didnt move, and the large seacock hasn't thawed out, the small one thawed by backing the hot water from the Insperator into it, pumped out the bilges, and then that pump balked will have to overhaul it in the morning. Have been trying to melt the ice in the bilges part of it is out are to try and get at the pipes in the bilges tomorrow. Will get steam and pump out what melts tonight, and try and fix up the pump so it will work again. Have got to take down the large discharge valve from the Condenser. I would like to see the Engine start so to break up the ice around the stern. One of the Eskimos brought in part of a deer he killed last night (Kiota) The Bar. is 29.42 tonight.

1909 070606b07/06/1909 George Wardwell

Steam for the bilge pump

07-05-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Borup got his photos last night; + MacMillan finding but five eggs in the duck's nest left them. He saw in company with some Arctic Turns, what he thinks was a Sabine's Gull. He + Capt. went out again this morning to try + get the gull, + found 2 turns nests, one just built + one with one egg. He got 2 female long tailed ducks. Saw nothing of the gull. The 2 quartz crystal Esks. came in with 2 red throated divers which they caught in fox traps at their nest on an island in a pond near Mt. Pullen. They report Kyutah having killed a deer (buck). This evening Borup, Captain, + 3 Esks. have gone up to photo the nest + get the one egg. Two women have gone after nests. The 2 families, who have been out for about a week near Dumb Bell Lakes came in today. No results except one seal. The 3 men who went out last night shot a seal but he sank. S-w-ly wind part of today, + this evening the belt of water is much wider + extends from well beyond Sheridan to around Ransom. Firing today under one boiler with old boxes etc. to get steam for bilge pump.

1909 07050507/05/1909 Robert E. Peary

A quiet fourth

07-04-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A quiet fourth, not the sound of a cracker or a gun. At first I thought of working up a programme of sports, such as rifle shooting, harpoon throwing, running, etc. but gave it up for two reasons - today is Sunday and the Captain suggested out of respect for Ross perhaps it would be best not to have any kind of a celebration. Some time ago Tu-cumah and Ina-waho found an old squaw's nest with three eggs in it. Today Captain and I walked up with them to collect the eggs and photograph the nest. As there were only five eggs in the nest I decided to leave it for a further increase as the old squaw sometimes lays a dozen. When coming back I noticed a strange gull with black head, throat and primaries of the wings. Tried to secure it with 22 rifles but failed. As soon as I arrived on board I consulted my bird books and was delighted to know I had seen a very rare bird - the Sabine gull, Zema Sabinii.

1909 07040407/04/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Snow is nearly all gone

07-03-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A walk today over the hills. The snow is nearly all gone. Flowers everywhere, especially the arctic poppy and saxifrage oppositifolia [purple saxifrage]. A number of the men are busy getting collections of quartz crystals and fossils.

1909 07030307/03/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Wind ceased

07-02-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Wind ceased about 2 to 3 this morning, then rain, then cloudy though sun shining on Greenland coast from Repulse Harbor to C. Bryant. Entire ice foot flooded at high tide. Full moon tomorrow. River rising every hour. A considerable lake off point of Sheridan. Sent 3 men off tonight to the west to hunt for Knot's nests.

1909 07020207/02/1909 Robert E. Peary

Number of cracks inside the ship

07-01-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The tidal observations were discontinued last night at twelve oclock so didnt get the temperature today but think it has been about forty above and a strong breeze from the So. West all day. It is fifty four above in the room. It has been clear all day and the snow and ice is melting pretty fast. The Capt. and some of the Inuits and the Boson went up to the river to leave a boat for a few of the Eskimos that are up that way with their wives, to use in returning. The wind is right to blow the boat across with a long rope attached to it and the Boson started to wade across to haul her up a bit and fasten her lightly, instead of hauling the boat back he went up above a little ways, and the water was so swift he was carried off his feet and he said he was carried down stream about a gun shot before he got ashore and gave up crossing, but the Capt. and some of the Eskimos have gone up to try it again they are going out on the ice and try to cross this time. There is quite a lot of water showing outside of us tonight, if this wind keeps up for 3 or 4 days it ought to break up so we can get out which I hope it will do as there is quite a lot of open water down below. There are a number of cracks inside the ship next to the shore and there is quite a lot of water on the ice at high water and quite a job to get ashore. The Bar. is 29.52 tonight falling now and has been all day. It has gone down .002 since I began to write this page.

1909 07010107/01/1909 George Wardwell

I don't notice it now

06-30-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty four above this morning and has only been up to thirty seven today, it has been snowing all day and the wind has been No. East light. One of the women was Parbloctoe this forenoon and went into the water of the shore and paddled around for quite awhile until one of the men waded in after her he had to go in up to his arm pits, that is the second time she has been in the water. They have those spells so often I dont notice it now. The Bar. is 29.84 tonight.

1909 06303006/30/1909 George Wardwell

Almost tropical in feeling

06-29-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The warmest day yet, almost tropical in feeling. MacMillan in from Conger soon after breakfast. Captain, Borup, + 5 Esks. left soon after for the Ascent of Mt. Pullen. Had the M.O. skins that Borup brought in fixed up as well as possible today. They are covered with hair only. The wool is all loose. Immediately after dinner Ootah _ Inughito went off Black Cliffs Bay way after nests of Knot + King Eider, + a little later 2 of the women went in same direction on some errand. Going up on the ridge abreast of the ship in the evening to look at the ice saw several birds feeding in a damp place. Called for a shot gun to be brought out from the ship + got 2 at one shot. They proved to be the Gray Phalarope. Pronounced mirage today, + this evening could see Brittannia Island from the first ridge above the ship. The river which has been rising yesterday has risen a good deal today + its noise is pronounced as soon as one steps out of doors.

1909 06292906/29/1909 Robert E. Peary

A day of interesting incidents

06-28-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Union, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A day of interesting incidents. On arriving at Cape Frederick VII we found the ice foot entirely gone, the snow had melted leaving a sloping, slippery point terminating into a steep drop into the sea. Looking it over we decided to try it. With all three guiding the komatik we crept slowly along until on the very point when the whole thing started to slide. The upsetting of the sledge was the only thing which saved it, the load presenting more friction to the slippery ice than the iron runners. When trying to right the sledge I slipped again but just managed to grasp the tail of a snow shoe. This over we struck out across Lincoln Bay threading our way among the leads and endeavoring to avoid rotten ice. In crossing a hole the bottom fell out, the komatik upset, hanging on the edge by one runner, and Jack hanging to the upstanders up to his waist in water not daring to let go for it meant a swim and not daring to climb for he would sink the komatik. Of course the dogs stopped just when they shouldn't and for a moment it looked serious. Pulling, tugging, yelling and whipping the dogs we succeeded in yanking it out of the water. Here we waited for Jack to change his clothes. To cross Shelter River we were obliged to unload again and ford the stream carrying everything on our heads. A little beyond Cape Union the deep water of the ice foot compelled us to camp. The sledging is wicked. At Lincoln Bay Koodlookto left his Conger trunk containing a large number of my Conger souvenirs, hoping that there may be an opportunity to get them again if the Roosevelt is driven in here for shelter. At the camp I shall leave my kamik-pucks, four seal-skins, sheep skin koolatah, and lantern box.

1909 06282806/28/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Secured the eggs

06-27-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

2nd Engr. + Borup found another Knots nest last night, + this afternoon I went with the 2nd + secured the eggs. He missed the old bird + we did not get her. These eggs perceptibly smaller than the first set + one of them is a different ground color from the other 3 which resembled those of the first set.

1909 06272706/27/1909 Robert E. Peary

Up to forty two

06-26-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty eight above this morning. it has been up to forty two during the day. It seemed cold for it has been cloudy about all day. I was up over the hill and got a few more fossils, took a gun along but didnt see anything to shoot. There is quite a lot of water running in the valley, almost to the top of my boots and about fifty feet wide where I crossed, narrower and deeper below a little ways. The Bar. is 30.05 tonight the first time it has been above 30 for a long time.

1909 06262606/26/1909 George Wardwell

Mushroom point

06-25-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Forty two above this morning and has been up to Forty nine during the day. It has been fine and clear all day. The Capt and I went up to Mushroom point today looking for fossils and it seemed very hot, walking as the snow was quite deep part of the way. It is about four miles from the ship, we only found a few shells, if there are any solid fossil rock we didnt see it there might be some under the snow, the English expedition found some up there. We left the ship at ten A.M. and got back at three P.M. They got the boats out from under the snow today and found all but one crushed more or less one in pretty bad shape whole end broke off. The Bar. is 29.97 tonight went up a lot last night.

1909 06252506/25/1909 George Wardwell

Narwhale steak today

06-24-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We had a heavy So. West wind today until about 1. P.M. and then it came around to the North and is blowing a little now. The Eskimos took a Narwhale early this morning it was 16 feet long and the horn was 6 feet long. They were more than a mile from the ship and had to cut it up and bring to the ship on sledges over the ice and boat it across one lead they got a harpoon into another one at eleven oclock today, but it pulled out and the seal skin float burst. We had Narwhale steak today and it goes fine after being without fresh meat so long. The Eskimos filled up and turned in, and dont expect to see them around again much before midnight. They wander around all night and sleep all day. We are in the same place yet drift a very little each way with the tide, just worked the Engine ahead a little to get out another line. The Bar. is 29.63.

1909 06242406/24/1909 George Wardwell

Great disappointment

06-23-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A tramp over the hills today with rifle and glass to the top of Cairn Hill to the southeast of us. A fox watched me for a large part of the way barking at my intrusion of his territory but keeping out of range of my 22. Went far enough to look down into Water Course Bay and far up the Greenland coast. The channel ice is still intact, and might give us a highway yet to the north when we start for the Roosevelt. The flower I brought back today is called in Eskimo "Kar-ond-blue-ah", the arctic tern "Ee-mick-ko-tail-yah". Jack has met with a great disappointment. The gold ring which he found a few days ago, from which he was to have made an engagement ring, proves to be brass!

1909 06232306/23/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Summer solstice

06-22-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The Summer Solstice, midnoon of the Arctic summer, + longest day of the year. Snowing all night. Some 3"- 4" on the ice foot his morning. A raw cold morning. Koolutinah, + wife, baby + Harrigan came in this morning from Patterson B. bringing one saddle of venison.

1909 06222206/22/1909 Robert E. Peary

My g-d- tooth

06-21-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

3 more days + nights of unadulterated hell with my g- d- tooth. Am over with it now at least temporarily, the tooth having ulcerated + come to a head. Blowing hard from the south all night + clear. This morning wind from N- soon accompanied with soft heavy snow continuing all day. A very disagreeable day.

1909 06212106/21/1909 Robert E. Peary

Anemometer

06-20-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Great weather now, thermometer at +36°. Koodlookto has rigged up an anemometer which is buzzing merrily in the wind, also a huge tripod of iron pipes from which is suspended an old copper propeller which rings out like a bell when he pounds it with a pestle.

1909 06202006/20/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

We are certainly living high

06-19-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Three more hare today, we are certainly living high as there is nothing better than hare meat. Koodlookto saw two seals today, wounded one big ìsquare flipperî but he got away. Our Inuit presents a great picture today. Dressed up in a military coat, the long tails fluttering in the breeze, and Kabloonah pants, boots and hat, he struts around with his hand in his pocket smoking his pipe and looking as if he owned Fort Conger and all the surrounding country.

1909 06191906/19/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

After all the trouble

06-19-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty seven above this morning and not much different all day. We had quite a strong So. East breeze about all day, it came around No. West at 3 oclock. The Musk ox calf died last night after all the trouble in bringing it from Clements Markham Inlet. The sun has been shining all day but it has not melted to amount to anything. The Bar. is 29.86 tonight and falling slowly.

1909 061919b06/19/1909 George Wardwell

Bursting with laughter

06-18-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

One more duck this morning. I carried three down to the tide hole, tied back their heads with strings and fixed them on the edge of the ice as life-like as possible, thinking that they might decoy other ducks and fool Jack as well. It worked all right. As soon as he saw them he came running in reporting three ducks on the ice. I asked him to take my rifle and shoot them. Then began a series of crouching and crawling too funny for description. Kood-look-to and I were bursting with laughter peeping around the corner of the building. Crawling up within range he rested the rifle on a piece of ice, took careful aim and fired - no result, the ducks weren't a bit afraid. He crawled up more nearer and repeated the operation - same result. He now crept in behind the tidal igloo and fired again. By this time he thought he had killed all three for he dropped gun and ran toward them only to be stopped by open water across which he looked at them long and earnestly. By this time we were roaring with laughter and Jack heard us. He shambled back up the hill looking sheepish enough.

1909 06181806/18/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A musk calf

06-17-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A cold night last night all the pools of water frozen over. A raw day. Eclipse of the sun this evening but beginning + end entirely obscured, + maximum obscuration partially so. About 9.- p.m. Borup came in with a musk calf alive, + meat + skins of 3 cows from Clements Markham Inlet. He did not get to Columbia because of coming back with the calf.

1909 06171706/17/1909 Robert E. Peary

Flipper, heart and kidneys

06-16-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
George Wardwell

Overcast and blowing from Northeast. Koodlookto kills two more old squaws. Tonight we had a meal of seal flipper, heart and kidneys. The terns came today. Are probably the Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea).

1909 06161606/16/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A little water in the boiler

06-16-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty three above this morning and has been about the same all day, and it has been snowing and the wind No. East light all day. We began to put in a little water in the boiler today but it isn't thawing any so we will have to wait awhile or else fill with salt water, but I guess we will have the boiler full by the time the ice leaves here by the looks of it now. The Bar. is 29.99 rising slowly. The tide Igloo overflowed yesterday and they just got it drained to take the tides tonight.

1909 061616b06/16/1909 George Wardwell

Calling cards

06-15-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Still cold, snowing, raining and blowing. Found some of Greeley's calling cards today also a book belonging to George W. Rice.

1909 061515b06/15/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Can almost see the ground

06-15-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty eight above this morning. Went down to Thirty two and now it is back to Thirty six. It began to rain about eight oclock this morning and rained until three this afternoon and then turned to snow and now has turned to mist. That is the first rain that any of us has ever seen in this vicinity. It has set the brooks running and taking the snow off pretty fast. If we get sunshine tomorrow we will see the snow disappear pretty fast. Can almost see the ground uncover now it is going so fast and the ice is slacking up close alongside. The Dr. said the Channel was open down as far as Lincoln bay and a place a half a mile wide right across to Greenland. The Bar. is 29.82 going up slow it has been below thirty a long time, and we have had a lot of cloudy weather.

1909 06151506/15/1909 George Wardwell

11 1/2 ° to port

06-14-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Koolootinah came in soon after midnight with saddles of 2 does + a fawn intact. Fine bright morning. Later strong southerly wind which opens the off shore lead, + forms several pools to the eastward. The Dr.'s two men arrive before noon via C. Rawson. They report 9 M.O. killed in region of Ruggles River. Also 1 deer this side of L. Hazen + a seal beyond F. Conger. They came back by way of Conger. The surface of the ice foot is getting blue now, the delta of the river is bare, + the patches of bare ground ashore are increasing in size hourly. The Dr. gets in about 6. - p.m. having come across country from Black Cape. The R - is beginning to right herself again. Her maximum list in the latter part of April was 11 ½° to port.

1909 06141406/14/1909 Robert E. Peary

Not quite tame enough

06-13-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty three above this morning, but went up to Forty two during the day but it has been cloudy since early this morning. The fox got out of his box and got out on the ice the Eskimos fired at it twice but didnt hit him and he ran away up over the hill so I guess he wont come back as he was not quite tame enough. The Bar. is 29.80 was lower last night, rising now.

1909 06131306/13/1909 George Wardwell

Bobbing his head

06-13-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Koodlookto back with no game. A seal keeps bobbing his head up near our tidal hole, wondering what in the world we are doing here. Yesterday I found a cuff with Lockwood's name on it, also a thermometer scale marked "Signal Service U.S.A."

1909 061313b06/13/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

House cleaning today

06-12-1909 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A fine bright day. Wind moderate + steady in morning + I obtained a series of photos of sail model. Am more + more pleased with the rig, shape, + arrangement of sails. In full sailing trim (square sail + top sails on mainmast) the model looks especially trim + effective. Nor do I recall ever having seen a similar rig. Eskimos house cleaning today. Everything taken out of their places, walls, ceiling, + floor, scrubbed, disinfected, + whitewashed. Karko off again this evening to Black Cliffs B. Lead open at Sheridan again this afternoon.

1909 06121206/12/1909 Robert E. Peary

Big red meated lake trout

06-11-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

I shall never forget a feed I had today as long as I live. We have not had any fish since leaving Labrador about a year ago so one can imagine how big red meated lake trout, fryed in butter, would taste to one having finished a good long tramp of sixty miles in the clear, cold, bracing arctic air. I could not eat all of my three pound fish, but some of the party ate two. The Doctor has enough of these fish to give us three such feeds. He and his Esquimaux left this evening for the Roosevelt. He started from Lake Hazen with two young musk-oxen hoping to get them to the ship alive. One soon died, and the other was killed by the dogs when lashed to the top of the sledge.

1909 06111106/11/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A fine plate for my sister

06-10-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Here we are at Fort Conger a place I little expected to see when reading about it in America, the home for two years of the ill-fated Lady Franklin Bay Expedition. Every foot of the ground, every point of land and every hill are associated with my reading of Greeley's "Three Years of Arctic Service." The large house is nearly destroyed, only a part of the kitchen remaining. The three small houses here are very comfortable, each one being furnished with a good stove. Two of these were built, I believe, by Commander Peary in 1900 and one by the Eskimos in the fall of 1906. The ground is fairly littered with the equipment of the Expedition and the personal effects of the men. Almost my first discovery was what I wanted to find most, a fine plate for my sister. This was followed by an ocarina, a musical instrument, and numberless other things.

1909 061010b06/10/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Never hurt her any

06-10-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty two above this morning, and went down to Twenty seven and has been cloudy and raw all day, and the wind began to blow from the South West about 3. P.M. and is blowing quite a breeze now. Two of the Eskimos that went out the other night got in this morning at 3 oclock and said they didnt even see a hare track. A little girl about 5 years old fell down the main hatch on to the coal in the bottom between the beams and never hurt her any except a little spot on her forehead. When she fell they all ran to see if she was killed and she was standing up crying. A 3 year old boy fell down a couple of months ago and cracked his collar bone. Have seen a few geese fly over but no one has got any yet. The Boson was up over the hill without a gun last night and saw two geese and was firing rocks at them but they flew before he hit them. The Bar. is 29.58 and falling.

1909 06101006/10/1909 George Wardwell

The ice foot became impossible

06-09-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Beechy, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Broke camp at Lincoln Bay at 3.15 yesterday, within fifteen minutes I broke the ice twice and was obliged to make a mad scramble for the shore. At Cape Frederick VII we found the ice foot entirely gone leaving a high steep bank covered with slippery ice. Here there was danger of losing everything, komatik, dogs and the whole business if we should attempt a crossing, so we unloaded the sledge and carried the load piece by piece on our heads around the cape. In the open water here we saw a black guillemot, the first of the season, also eight geese and a large flock of old squaws, or as some call them, the long tailed duck (Harelda hyemalis). The next mile or so was hard work sledging along an ice foot so steep that we were obliged to put ropes on the front and hind ends of the komatik to keep it from upsetting. We got into holes where the united strength of all three of us and the ten dogs could not budge the sled. Finally the ice foot became impossible, so we were compelled to descend to the channel ice. Unharnessing the dogs we let the komatik go with a rush down over the ragged ice. It bounced, jumped and leaped but landed right side up with care - another triumph for the "Peary Komatik." As we were approaching Cape Beechy a black dot on the ice ahead proved to be a seal which Koodlookto failed to get. Here the noise of falling water attracted our attention, a noise so unusual that at first I did not know what it was. Looking toward the high cliffs we could see it falling down over the rocks to the ice foot. We immediately turned inshore and pitched our tent as near to it as possible.

1909 06090906/09/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Washing up

06-08-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A mild foggy day. Washing up + paneling apt. Deck pumps started today. First time used since Sept. 23rd. Harrigan + Kyutah off again today to their camps west of Black Cliffs B - . Sent Weshakupsie + Ahwatingwah off on foot after dinner to scout the Mt. Pullen region + sleep out one night. Ootah + ìPingasukî also to Rawson for the other 2 owls eggs + the owls if possible. Stove in my room taken down today. Tried to take some photos of sail model but not enough wind to fill the sails.

1909 06080806/08/1909 Robert E. Peary

Not Thawing

06-07-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty above this morning and has been about the same all day. Cloudy most of the day, not thawing to amount to anything yet. I have finished up the stamping of the letters for the Northern Record, and Borup leaves right away to set it up on cape Columbia. And McMillan leaves tonight for Fort Conger with one sailor and one Eskimo to take the tidal observations for ten days. Two Eskimos are to go with Borup. One Eskimo came in this morning with one deer and a fawn he tried to keep the fawn alive but it died on the way to the ship. The Bar. is 29.67 tonight rising.

1909 06070706/07/1909 George Wardwell

Something of a menagerie

06-06-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Nearly 2 weeks of unadulterated hell, with my tooth. During this time also the weather has been dull + disagreeable with almost daily snow. Soon after midnight Karko came in with meat of 6 deer killed by Inughito. One of the men winged a snowy owl this morning + he is now caged. This with the live fox of yesterday + the lemmings gives us something of a menagerie. Another of the men got a knot + reported numbers of them about a small pond W. of the ship. 2 eiders seen this morning. Borup + McMillan went up to the Owls nest found by Pangasuk several days ago + obtained good photos of site of nest + the eggs, + brought in 5 of the 7 eggs. They were unable to secure the old birds.

1909 06060606/06/1909 Robert E. Peary

Caught by the toes

06-05-1909 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Nineteen above this morning. Went up to Thirty during the day, but it has been cloudy and foggy all day and snowed some too. I have been stamping some more letters on Copper to day for the records at Cape Columbia. I have only two men in the Engineroom today. One is sick too in the tide Igloo, one on deck but we are most ready so we dont have to hurry any. Cody and the nightwatchman Murphy went out this morning hunting, Cody found a fox in his trap caught by the toes and brought him in alive, he is very ugly will snap at anyone that goes within 3 or 4 feet of him. That is all they saw. They said the new snow is most up to oneís knees. The Bar. is 29.63 tonight, the same since morning.

1909 06050506/05/1909 George Wardwell

I had better wait

06-04-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

I informed Jack today that he was to go with me to Conger which pleased him very much. Commander thinks I had better wait until Monday when Borup and I can start together, he to erect a memorial cross for Ross and cairn for Commander on which will be placed a frame containing the names of the members of the Expedition. He will also run into Clements Markham Inlet for musk-oxen and bring home if possible a young one, to be given to some museum in America.

1909 060404b06/04/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Found a big piece of pork

06-04-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty two above this morning and has been about the same all day. It snowed all night and all day, there is about five inches of new snow on the ground now and still snowing. The boys were taking an old oil barrel out of the after hold down in the shaft ally today and found a big peice [sic] of pork in it and it smelled so they had to take it out and throw it overboard and then we had to sprinkle carbolic acid around. The Bar. is 29.64 tonight falling fast.

1909 06040406/04/1909 George Wardwell

More like winter than summer

06-03-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty one above this morning and has been about the same all day, it snowed all night and part of the day, it melts on deck but not on the old snow the bear [sic] spots onshore are all covered up, and it looks more like Winter than Summer. The sun has broke through a few times today but dont amount to much. Three Eskimo men and one woman went away hunting last night and another man and his wife and boy go tonight they are all to be gone ten or fifteen days. The Bar. is 29.83 tonight rising again but colder. The moon fulls today so we hope for better weather.

1909 06030306/03/1909 George Wardwell

Take life easy

06-02-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We eat, sleep, read, talk, and take life easy. Am looking over my equipment and sorting out what I shall take to Conger - just as little as I possibly can as it may be left along the coast somewhere if we are compelled to abandon sledges.

1909 06020206/02/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Counted 104 in one bunch

06-01-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty seven above this morning, but went to sixteen at eleven oclock and has been as low as that all day. The sun has broken through the clouds once or twice. McMillan & Borup with four Eskimos arrived last night about six oclock. They met Cody he came into their camp at Repulse harbor just as they were leaving so he stopped to have a sleep and got here this morning at six oclock and brought the last of the provisions at Lincoln bay. McMillan, Borup and the Eskimos had killed 24 more Musk oxen for themselves and dogs, and then didnt kill only what they needed. He said he counted 104 in one bunch and then he dont know as he counted all of them and saw a lot more along Cape Morris Jesup.

1909 06010106/01/1909 George Wardwell

Our troubles will now begin

05-31-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We all left Repulse Harbor together this morning, thick and snowing at the time, laying our course by compass and by the faint glow of the sun as the sledge tracks of the day before were entirely obliterated. After travelling for some hours, high black cliffs could be seen through the haze, which we at first thought were the high cliffs below Cape Frederick VII but to our great satisfaction proved to be the cliffs of Cape Union and Black Cape. Near the land we encountered rough ice and fresh water pools in the hollows through which we worked with some difficulty, Cody and his Inuits leaving us here to bring up the Lincoln Bay cache to the Roosevelt. Arriving at the camp site at Black Cape the Inuits wanted to camp having already marched about 25 miles but George and I told then we were going to the ship about eight or ten miles further. Looking back we saw them coming. Our Cape Morris Jesup trip is over and the return trip made in good time. We have today in one march equaled ten of the English marches, have been come from the most northern point of land in this world in six marches, an average of about 35 miles a day. Have been away from ship for forty three days, have been well and strong every minute of the time, and could start back over the same road tomorrow with pleasure - a triumph for the up-to-date sledging equipment of Commander Peary. With our variety of ships food, little exercise, our troubles will now begin.

1909 05313105/31/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A large cairn

05-30-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Repulse Harbor, Greenland
George Wardwell

By keeping well out today we passed the dreaded Black Horn Cliffs very easily and comfortably as far as the surface of the ice was concerned, but a rather disagreeable day of snow and mist completely shutting out the west side of Robeson Channel. If it had been clear we would have undoubtedly tried the crossing in spite of the twenty-five miles of ice and possibly water, leads and cracks. As we approached Repulse Harbor the Esquimaux thought that the ice foot would be better then the channel ice, so we swung in onto the shore following it down to the southern point of the harbor through rather soft going. Here the ice was jammed high against the shore leaving no practicable place for a camp; so we pushed out through and camped on the ice about a hundred yards from land. A large cairn up on the hill attracted my attention. Visiting it I found it to be the largest I have seen, I think it must be the largest on the North Greenland Coast. I thought at first that it had been constructed by Hall, but in consulting my Tyson's book I find the following "Went ashore in the boat with Captain Hall, and examined a bight in shore to see if it would do for a harbor. No protection, would not do". So this then must be the famous cairn of Lieut Beaumont of the English Expedition of 1875-1876!

1909 05303005/30/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

The windless engine

05-29-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty two above this morning, and hasn't been above Twenty three today, the sun shone for a little while this morning, but the wind came around to the North and it has been trying to snow for the rest of the day. I fixed up the windless Engine today, and the main deck Wench yesterday. Cody is leaving for a trip across to Greenland to leave some provisions and a letter of instructions for McMillan to go to Fort Conger to take tidal observations, they have to cross the Sound south of us and that will save them two or three days travel and perhaps four they can go right along instead of coming to the ship and then turn around and travel back again. Not much melting of snow today. The Bar. is 29.69 tonight rising slowly.

1909 05292905/29/1909 George Wardwell

Soft going

05-28-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Bryant, Greenland
George Wardwell

We had been wondering all the way down from Morris Jesup how the Keltie Gulf would greet us. It is, as we feared, soft going, but by keeping out near Beaumont Island we find it decidedly better than on our upward trip. A short march today of 10 hours as we are all pretty tired and weather warm. We had some difficulty in finding a spot hard enough for a camping site, repeatedly breaking the crust up to mid-thigh in trying to pitch the tent.

1909 05282805/28/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Some future explorer

05-27-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sabor, Greenland
George Wardwell

It was hang to it today until we had covered forty miles. For a large part of the way it was hard smooth going, so smooth in fact that the motion of the kowatik caused us to feel drowsy. It was laughable to watch each other as the head dropped lower and lower and the surprised look as one hit the ice. At Cape Neumayer we came upon the site of Commander's camp in 1906 as he came from the ice after making the world's record of 87° 6'. Having been held up by the "big lead" for several days they reached land in a starving condition as shown by the bones of their dogs which they had used for food. As we still have plenty of musk-ox meat we shall leave here a large part of our cache. Possibly it may aid some future explorer. Chipp Inlet certainly looks inviting, extending miles and miles into the interior until fading in the distance. George and I both hope that the time may come when we shall crack a whip from here to the other side of Greenland.

1909 05272705/27/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Finishing touches

05-26-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A dull cloudy day, threatening to snow. The sail model taken out on quarter deck by Mr. Gushue + given the finishing touches for photographing. My infernal tooth still making things very unpleasant for me. Snowy owl shot a mile or two from the ship. One of the Esks. Brought in a very old piece of narwhal horn which he found this side of the water supply lake.

1909 05262605/26/1909 Robert E. Peary

My infernal tooth

05-25-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A beautiful day again, clear calm + warm, but I have had little enjoyment out of it because of my infernal tooth which the Dr. filled last evening + which has been steadily growing worse since, until I had to have him dig the filling out again this evening. It took about an hour to do this with a varied assortment of coarse tools. Coady got away again this evening with all the dogs + 7 Esks to bring in the remainder of the supplies at Porter Bay. Quarter deck washed off with soda today in effort to remove the whale meat smell. Henson starts on a 10' "Peary" sledge.

1909 05252505/25/1909 Robert E. Peary

My left ankle

05-24-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Washington, Greenland
George Wardwell

Another beautiful day, temperature +23°. A short march to Cape Washington as we wish to look at records in Commander Peary's cairn and wait a few hours for the sun to get around behind us. We have done so much snow shoeing that my left ankle has given out completely. I should never have known but what I had sprained it in some way if George had not informed me as to the cause of the trouble. It is what the French Canadian guides call "mal de raquette" or over taxation of the muscles in front of the ankle reaching up the leg for five or six inches. Caused by snapping the snow shoe out ahead at every step. My foot drops down of its own weight and remains in that position in spite of my best efforts. Tonight I have it tied up to my leg with a string to ease the pain if possible. We find Commander's record enclosed with a copy of Lockwood and Brainard's in a tin cylinder left by him at their farthest point - Lockwood Island. George tried to get a photograph of them at six feet, the records held up by Kiotah and myself.

1909 05242405/24/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

With trailing colors

05-23-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Cannon, Greenland
George Wardwell

We left Cape Morris Jesup at 2.35 this morning. George and I started out ahead of the komatiks on snow shoes, feeling so good that to walk to the ship would have been a "cinch". Before the end of the march we were dragging our tails behind us and came in with trailing colors. After ten days of high living and no exercise we were in no condition for such a tramp. Our objective point was Cape Washington 35 miles away; at the end of 23 we were glad enough to see the tupik pitched near the ice foot at the foot of the glacier to the east of Cape Cannon. The glare of the sun has been very hard on our eyes today, although we have worn our colored glasses constantly. For some time after reaching the tupik I was obliged to lie with my feet in the air to avoid cramps. George is so hot that he keeps running outside with his pants down to cool off. The Esquimaux are asleep on their komatiks in the sun enjoying their new musk-ox robes and their sleeping bag.

1909 05232305/23/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Antarctic ship model

05-22-1909 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Jo's birthday. Bartlett back about 6.- a.m. + with him Inughito + Karko from MacMillan at C. Jesup. They bring a note from him dated the 8th saying that they overtook him just as he arrived there; that he had killed 23 muskoxen there etc. etc. They bring in the 4 other skins of the C. May herd, + a few pounds of meat. Suit of sails for the Antarctic ship model completed today (except a few finishing touches) to scale of ½" to 1'. I think she is not only going to look well but sail well. There are in all 14 sails, with a total area of about 2400 [square] yrds. Only 1800 [square] yrds of this will be effective at one time, as a portion of the sails are fore + aft, + a portion square.

1909 05222205/22/1909 Robert E. Peary

No sunshine at all

05-21-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Sixteen above again this morning and has been about the same all day. The air has been full of frost all day just like fog. No sunshine at all today no thawing. The Capt. with two Eskimos went down to the lower cache today he is to pick out some of the provisions to leave for McMillan and his party to use when they return. The Bar. is 30.12 tonight falling.

1909 05212105/21/1909 George Wardwell

Another raw day

05-20-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Another raw day. Wind shifted to the north. Mr. Gushue perfecting spars + sails of new ship sail model. Henson completes first full size "Peary" sledge in the rough.

1909 05202005/20/1909 Robert E. Peary

More hearts and tongues!

05-19-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland
George Wardwell

We have improved our tidal observation quarters by building a snow wall around it and placing a komatik inside covered with skins. Although it has snowed all day yet we have been quite comfortable. The temperature is at 34°. Such warm weather makes everything wet and nasty. The bottom of our tupik is soaking wet so will sleep out at every opportunity. From now on we shall take five minute readings instead of ten. Our range is so small such observations, I think, will be more valuable. The Inuits have returned from another hunt having harpooned four more big bulls making a total of 47 killed here and 52 in all since leaving the ship. More hearts and tongues!

1909 05191905/19/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

It made them lame

05-18-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty two above this morning, and about the same all day. About two inches of damp snow fell last night, with a light No. E. wind but it is disappearing fast now although we have had it cloudy most of the day. Two Eskimos made a trip down to the caches yesterday and got back last night at nine oclock. Have taken the wood floor out of the upper Engine room today, and will begin to put it together tomorrow. The snow is getting so soft now that one goes to the bottom of it whatever the depth may be. So it makes it hard traveling. Two Eskimos came in today from the south had been to Lincoln bay they said it was hard to get along without dogs. It made them lame slumping in so and hauling the sledge. They got five hare. The Barometer is 30.28 has been to 80.33 since yesterday falling for more snow I guess.

1909 05181805/18/1909 George Wardwell

Smelled like a cow barn

05-17-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland
George Wardwell

It became overcast this morning and very warm, the thermometer going up to +35. Soon it began to blow, increasing to gale, the fine drifting snow made our ten minute observation work rather disagreeable, perhaps partly on account of the great contrast between the comfort of our hut and the outside. The Inuits on the approach of the gale had brought in all the new musk-ox robes making a bed about a foot thick. Although our tupik smelled like a cow barn in the presence of so much comfort such a smell was not to be regarded as objectionable. A good feed tonight of musk-ox heart and tongues!

1909 05171705/17/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A prairie fire

05-16-1909 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Early this morning the wind began blowing very fresh from the S.W. + has kept it up all day + this evening. The sun is shining, the temp. is high + the snow on the land is disappearing almost as before a prairie fire. Pools of water are also forming about the ship. Two ptarmigan shot near ship today.

1909 05161605/16/1909 Robert E. Peary

Cold tea

05-15-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland
George Wardwell

Back at Cape Morris Jesup finding note for at old camp site from George stating that "tidal observations station located about one and a half mile East". Found him on half rations, with very little biscuit, oil and milk. We-shark-ob-sie had not returned from Mary Murray Island evidently held up by the snow of the last three or four days. It is now six days since he started. Cold tea never tasted so good as it did when I got into camp. Was very thirsty and hungry, the tea seemed to satisfy both hunger and thirst. Before going on duty decided to run up the coast and try to get a photograph of a live musk ox. Had not been gone long when we rounded up a large bull. I told the Huskies not to shoot until I had taken some pictures. I could only get two as the musk ox was charging into the dogs in all directions, tossing two up over his head, ripping open the thigh of one. We finished skinning this one we could count with the glasses a herd of fifteen feeding on the hills to the eastward of us, also five up at the head of the valley. Persuaded the Inuits that we had meat enough and could not use them if we killed them so came back to camp. We-shark-ob-sie come in a short time after this, followed by Kood-look-to who had followed and killed a big bull far in among the hills. As he was without a knife he left him lying where he shot him. Began observations at 10 o'clock tonight. George says water is not rising and falling regularly and was planning to move today. We shall watch it for twelve hours before we move elsewhere.

1909 05151505/15/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Some 20 lemmings

05-14-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Another perfect Spring day. Ootah, + Ooquiah off with a sledge (no dogs) + a few supplies for a scout down Channel after seals. They may go as far as Conger. The children have brought me in the last few days some 20 lemmings alive + I am watching them in a large box on the quarter deck. Today the children caught 5 or 6 small fish 7" to 10" long in the water supply lake.

1909 05141405/14/1909 Robert E. Peary

A fine white fox

05-13-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A perfect Spring day, clear, calm, warm. 6 cases biscuit brought in from the Black Cape cache today. Last night a fine white fox came off to the ship + attempted to come on board. He was killed by one of the Eskimos. They tell me the fox was "piblockto" just like the dogs; + that in the Whale Sound region they often go mad the same way, + sometimes attempt to come into the igloos. The mate engaged in putting sample cases of provisions into the lazarette today.

1909 05131305/13/1909 Robert E. Peary

Young ice

05-12-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Sea Ice
George Wardwell

I could hardly believe my eyes this morning. After travelling for five hours through terrible going, rubble ice, holes, soft snow, we came to what the Inuits called "Nu-ka-pā-teer seeko," young ice. It seemed too good to be true. When we had reached the end of it I decided to pitch tupik so as to take a sounding. Found the depth of water to be 91 fathoms, temperature 29°. Can see more young ice ahead so will not take a sight today, but will push on for all we are worth.

1909 05121205/12/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

In holes over my head

05-11-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland
George Wardwell

We left our camp inside the pressure ridge last night about 8 o'clock and marched until four this morning. Has snowed all night and still continues to do so. I thought I knew something about the ice of the Polar Sea but prior to this trip it has been comparatively child's play to work through it. Here off this cape it is simply frightful, hardly a spot flat enough to pitch a tent, jammed up into one great conglomerate mass and the falling snow masking the holes and crevices to perfection. I have stumbled and fell forward and backward wrenching arms and legs and bruising my body in numberless places. At times wading through snow up to my waist and have been in holes over my head. The first komatik as it struck onto the rough ice from the glacial fringe, went completely out of sight in the soft snow. The next turned completely over smashing both upstanders. This was decidedly encouraging. While Kiotah was doing some repairing Koodlookto and I went on ahead road making. In an hour or so we started on again. We are hemmed in tonight on all sides by high walls of ice. How to get out and where to head for will be a question for us in the morning. Still snowing.

1909 05111105/11/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Getting Marvin's things together

05-10-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A very fine Spring day. Captain + myself cleaning up + overhauling rooms, drying out things etc. As a result the quarter deck is littered with everything. Spring work on ship also commenced, the Chief taking covers off stack + ventilators preparatory to work on the engines. Captain getting Marvin's things together. His room cleared out, + Mr. Gushue begins on the sail model for the Antarctic ship. Henson already at work on model "Peary" sledge, + the 2nd on some model lamp stoves.

1909 05101005/10/1909 Robert E. Peary

80 tins of biscuits

05-10-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty four above this morning, but went down to twenty one above during the day. Two Eskimos went to Lincoln bay yesterday morning and got back at 9.30 last night with a load of provisions from the cache we made there last fall. The Com. is going to have both caches down that way and those up along as far as Cape Columbia brought to the ship before the water begins to run. There are about 80 tins of biscuits up Cape Columbia way and lots of pemmican and some kerosene. I am still stamping letters on copper plate. The Bar. is 30.25 tonight. Has been higher, falling now.

1909 051010b05/10/1909 George Wardwell

37 cans of milk

05-09-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A disagreeable day, damp melting snow fall nearly all day. Sent 2 Eskimos off early with sledge + 8 dogs to begin bringing in the Black Cape cache. They returned in evening with 2 cases sugar, 2 cases coffee, 2 cases tea, 1 case + 11 tins milk. 37 cans of milk have been used from this cache in the winter work. They also obtained 3 hare just beyond Rawson.

1909 05090905/09/1909 Robert E. Peary

The coming Antarctic work

05-08-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland
George Wardwell

As George and I were getting ready for bed I heard a dog team coming. Rushed out and found We-shark-ob-sie, Karko, Awah-ting-wah, and Inughito, the two former from the Roosevelt with a letter from Commander Peary. They had followed close behind us for about two hundred miles in an endeavor to overtake us. The other boys had joined them at Cape Bryant.

1909 05080805/08/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Lettering some copper plate

05-07-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Five above this morning and has been about the same all day the sun has been fine and bright today. The Second is making sample kerosene stoves large and small from the Com. plans, and I am lettering some copper plate, first drawing and then pricking the outlines with a centre punch so as to leave a record of the work the Com. has accomplished at Cape Columbia. And also expect to leave a tablet here in Memory of Marvin. The Bar. is 30.43 tonight.

1909 05070705/07/1909 George Wardwell

Some bad places

05-07-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland
George Wardwell

As it continued to blow and drift we tried to sleep but some one kept talking so we gave it up and noted right then to open Charlie's box and have a feed. It proved to be full of break, butter and cocoa. It is needless for me to write just how good buttered toast and cocoa tasted after living for nineteen days on crackers and tea. As it still continued to howl and drift we turned over for a short nap. At six o'clock we decided to buck out into it. The rest did us good as shown by our march of fourteen hours over some pretty rough going. Some bad places were met with in our march over the glacier, the snow giving away from beneath us repeatedly and some of the dogs dropping out of sight. As we neared Morris Jesup we found a large spot of blood in the snow above which was written "RMEAN \" this was translated after we arrived in camp by its author Kudlookto as "Kiotah has killed a rabbit". He is progressing rapidly in his spelling and writing lessons. As soon as we had eaten both Inuits were off to the hills in search of musk oxen. They have seen tracks, so could hardly wait for their grub.

1909 050707b05/07/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A long E. + W. lead

05-06-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

53 today. More of the violent off shore squall between midnight + noon with a light snow precipitation in very large flakes. The Dr. was on the hills last evening + reports a long E. + W. lead some distance to the N. Just before noon Koolootinah came in form MacMillan with a letter dated Nares Inlet Apr. 27, saying they had just killed 5 M.O. + that M- was sending back 2 sledges + 3 men. K- brings in one M.O. skin + some meat. From him I learn that they staid 4 sleeps where the M.O. were killed, finishing up the meat; that he + the other 2 men met Wee-shakupsi + Karko off Dragon Point, + the other 2 went back with them in order to more quickly overtake M-. They will probably do this in the neighborhood of Britannia I., so this matter seems to have worked out all right.

1909 05060605/06/1909 Robert E. Peary

Never tiring

05-05-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Benedict Fiord, Greenland
George Wardwell

Smooth ice enabled us to make a good march today of about ten hours. We sat on our sledges and looked with all the eyes we have at every cape, headland, bay, fiord, hill and mountain - never tiring of the beautiful scenery. The view into Huut Fiord is simply magnificent. At Capes Kane and Washington we found the ice piled high against the shore, at the latter the highest I have seen. Snapped my camera at this but regretted that I failed to place anything in the foreground to serve as a contrast. Consequently the picture will fail to show the height. This morning we took pictures of ourselves at Lockwood and Brainard cairn, one of the cairn alone with Washington in the distance, one of Huut Fiord. Did not stop at Commander's cairn at Washington.

1909 050505b05/05/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Furious sou-wester

05-05-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

All last night + this morning we had a furious sou-wester directly off the land with blinding drift. Made it seem like the last time we were here. Previous to this the barometer was very high. The effect of the wind has been to almost completely denude the uplands of snow. This will tend toward a speedy disappearance of the remainder, + the wind particularly if it is the precursor of a windy Spring, will make for the early breaking up of the ice. My toothache has I believe finally disappeared. This will be the first time I believe in all my Arctic Expeditions that I have been at headquarters through May + June as I seem likely to be now. Hitherto there has always seemed to be something more to be done in the field. Now my work is done. I have only to get it in shape.

1909 05050505/05/1909 Robert E. Peary

A frightful, jagged mess

05-04-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Lockwood Island, Greenland
George Wardwell

Have had all kinds of going today both on land and sea. Invariably on the western sides of the Capes we find soft snow requiring snow shoes, on the ends smooth ice grading off into rolling blue top ice and from this to soft going as we approach the next Cape. Today at Hummock Cape the ice was jammed up against the shore leaving no ice foot at all but a frightful, jagged mass through which we were obliged to work our way as best we could. Have also had a variety in the way of open leads some of which we were able to cross others to go around. We are in camp tonight beyond the farthest of Lockwood and Brainard. Naturally the country from here on becomes more interesting, considering the fact that only one man has been here before us, Commander Peary. We are having hare now nearly every meal. Kood-look-to has just come in with three which will give four of us a big feed.

1909 05040405/04/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Didn't have such a siege

05-03-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty one above this morning at seven oclock when the sun was shining on the thermometer and in one hour it went to one below and has been there about all day. Cody one of the sailors and three Eskimos have just left for Cape Columbia to bring back some of the provisions that were carried up there last fall the Com. is going to try and get them all back and those down the coast also. They didnt have such a seige [sic] this year on the ice and didnt loose any provisions so there is quite a lot to come back. That will be fine to have the pemmican as we haven't much fresh meat this year. The Bar. is 30.32 tonight going up again.

1909 05030305/03/1909 George Wardwell

Afraid the ice might move

05-02-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Eight below this morning and hasn't been less than 5 below all day. There has been a fair breeze from the West all day and it feels pretty cold for the time of year. The Capt. was going tomorrow to do some sounding off Cape Columbia but I think the Com. has called it off he has thought it over and is afraid the ice might move off and he doesn't want to loose [sic] any more men and I think he wishes he hadn't sent McMillan now, but he warned him not to cross any place where there has been a lead for it is liable to open again and stay open with southerly winds. They have had light No. East winds all winter and the ice is drifting West where they had West and South winds the last trip and the ice drifting to the East. The Barometer is 30.15 tonight and bright sun.

1909 05020205/02/1909 George Wardwell

A good full pot

05-01-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Payer, Greenland
George Wardwell

We left Elison Island this A.M. about 3 o'clock marching about 10 hours and a quarter. The going has been good all day long, the best we have had since crossing the channel. We are in camp tonight beneath the high cliff of Cape Payer, a beautiful spot. We have not used all of our musk-ox meat yet, a good pot full nearly every night us thoroughly enjoyed.

1909 050101b05/01/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Long, feathery frost

05-01-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Two below this morning, and went down to five during the day. The rigging was covered with a long, feathery frost this morning, but it soon went away when the sun got around this morning. The sun has been shining bright all day but it seems very cold. The bar. is 30.45 tonight falling again.

1909 05010105/01/1909 George Wardwell

Shortest march today

04-30-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sabor, Greenland
George Wardwell

We worried somewhat this morning in regard to Koodlookto, not finding him in camp when we awoke. As George and Kiotah were preparing to go back to investigate he could be seen coming. On arriving he gave as a reason for his delay that his dogs were no good but later we learned that he had slept on his kowatik all night, starting up the dogs whenever he awoke. We have made our shortest march today of the trip finding the travelling wretched off the end of John Murray Island - deep snow, tidal cracks and rough ice have delayed us all day. We were so tired when we got here, we decided to call a halt and cache enough supplies to enable us to spend about twelve days in Chipp Inlet on our return. This will lighten our loads considerably and enable us to make longer marches. Bear tracks were seen yesterday near Cape Brittania.

1909 04303004/30/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Cloudy most all day

04-29-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Eleven above this morning, and went to one below during the day, it has been cloudy most all day, and the boys have been drilling sledge shoe's [sic] on deck about all day. Two Eskimos left last night for Greenland to take the sounding gear to the party up there. Cody the sailor got here from Wrangle bay last night about 9.30 with ten hare and six other Eskimo men and women. Came from Black Cliff bay without any game, they ate what they got and that wasn't very much lately. They had plenty of hard bread and tea and a few hare. The Barometer is 30.35 tonight rising.

1909 04292904/29/1909 George Wardwell

Lemming specimens

04-28-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

One week since I reached the Roosevelt + I have not felt like taking up pen or pencil since. The weather since my return until today has been, as for the many days previous, clear, calm, + for the place + season warm. On my way back I had planned to have the Captain go out + make a line of 10 or 5 mile soundings from Columbia to Camp No. 8 to bring out the cross sections of the continental shelf + the deep channel along it, + he got his equipment ready, + I had 2 "Peary" sledges built for him, then changed my mind, + decided not to send him. He is not any too fit, numerous boils, + his feet + ankles swollen. Besides this I have much writing to do in the next 2 months + I want nothing to worry about, as I certainly should about him if we got a gale during his absence. There has been a new arrival in the Eskimo colony since I left. Ooblooyah's wife having given birth to a girl. As for myself, this return has been a little different from any previous one. For 24 hours after my return I felt as fit as ever, ready to start out again somewhere if necessary; then the reaction came, the inevitable result of complete change of diet, + atmosphere, + the substitution of complete inaction, physical + mental, for incessant effort. I had no energy pr ambition for anything, could scarcely stop sleeping long enough to eat, or eating long enough to sleep. And the latter too, not because of hunger or short rations during the trip, for this had not happened, but because none of the ships food seemed to have the satisfying effect of pemmican, + I could not seem to hold enough to feel content. I knew better than to gorge myself, + compromised on eating little at a time but often. This time however there was no swelling of feet or ankles. Today I am beginning to feel like myself, the last traces of the toothache are vanishing + I am making my plans for a good deal of writing in the coming 2 months. Have had a false top put on my desk to bring it up level, + a level platform made for my chair so that I can use the desk. The heeling of the R- to port has slowly increased during my absence, as during the winter, + is now something over 10°. I have issued Dr. Allen's traps to the children + some of the younger Eskimo women, + as a result the lemming specimens are coming in rapidly. Have fitted out my northern Eskimos with rifles, shot guns, cartidges, shells, reloading tools, hatchets, knives galore, small telescopes, etc. + they have been like so many children.

1909 04282804/28/1909 Robert E. Peary

The secret of the North is found

04-27-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Five below this morning at seven and at 9 it was 9 above. Went to 14 above and then began to go down again The Com. with one Eskimo arrived today at 1.45 PM had come from Cape Columbia in two marches which is one day less than it has ever been done. Mat. stopped over with his men to sleep. The Com. made a quick march to the north after the Capt. left him no delay at all and came right back on his own trail and picked up the Capts. trail and never lost it for five minutes all the way to the land no open water and fine going all the way, the ice hadn't moved since the Capt. came in, although he was held up two or three days in some places the Com. made the march in one day where the Capt was two days and he had plenty of dogs and all could ride and make five miles an hour where the Capt. had to walk and not make over three The Secret of the North is found and there will be no more chasing the No. pole unless it is to follow up the Geographical past of the Arctic ocean for soundings and the land in Beaufort Sea between here and Alaska, and look up Crocker land which I suppose has been accomplished by Dr. Cook. The Bar. is 30.09 tonight and fine. The Com. was away from the ship 65 days pretty good work, he did some hustling, and kept things moving while it was good going.

1909 04272704/27/1909 George Wardwell

Evil designs

04-26-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Sherard Osborn Fiord, Greenland
George Wardwell

Sherard Osborn Fiord seems to have evil designs upon all who dare to intrude. A smooth surface apparently the best going, proves to be deep soft snow. The opposite shore looking so near recedes as one approaches until one almost gives up in despair of ever reaching it. It was here the English had such a hard time, wading through snow more than three feet deep with no snow shoes, "parched with thirst, and obliged to halt every fifty yards to recover breath" - "sometimes dragging the sledge on their hands and knees to relieve their aching legs or hauling her ahead with a long rope and standing pulls" in one march only making two miles. Altho the shore looked to them only one mile away it took them 3 days to reach it.

1909 04262604/26/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

It was smooth ice

04-25-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Fourteen below this morning and two now. The Capt. said he left the Com. the first day of April as near as he could go to his diary, he was one day behind in his recovering when he got to the ship. He went on five marches after Marvin left and was held up two days by open water and was 17 days coming back to the land. Was held up 3 or 4 days by open water. Coming back, said it was smooth ice and some days he made as much as 30 nautical miles. The Bar. is 30.09 tonight falling a little.

1909 04252504/25/1909 George Wardwell

A difference of opinion

04-24-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Bryant, Greenland
George Wardwell

The members of our party became separated today owing to a difference of opinion as to the best trail - land or sea ice, causing us some inconvenience later on in the day. Kiotah, Koodlookto and I stuck to the land, finding excellent going along the ice foot, making rapid progress to Marvin's igloo. The others kept well out on the sea ice making land almost at the [unreadable] end of the Cape. We fitted camp at the tidal igloo and waited for some hours for the rest of the party. Before going to sleep I went up on the hill for a final look and saw them on the ice foot far ahead waiting for us. There was nothing to do but break camp and go on. The boys have killed five ptarmigan and a hare giving us a very pleasant change in our diet. Have decided not to leave provisions here for Commander but trust that the Captain will send a load for us both.

1909 04242404/24/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A very comfortable return

04-23-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

After 23 yrs. of effort, hard work, disappointments, hardships, privations, more or less suffering + some risks, I have won the last great geographical prize, the North Pole, for the credit of the U.S., the Service to which I belong, myself, + my family. My work is the finish, the cap + climax, of 300 years of effort, loss of life, + expenditure of millions, by some of the best men of the civilized nations of the world; it has been accomplished with a clean cut dash, spirit, + I believe thoroughness, characteristically American. I am content. Got away from camp 5 - p.m. of 22°. Same brilliant clear calm weather. Short distance from camp encountered an impracticable lead which Captain's trail crossed. Followed this towards land seeking a crossing. Got one entire team in water making an attempt to get over. Finally lead swung to east, we found Captain's trail back on our side + took it up again. After a short distance through rough ice saw edge of the glacial fringe ahead of us. Stopped party till I could get up on it to take some photos. At 8.30 p.m. of the 22 entire party on the glacial fringe of Grant Land, off the sea ice + practically on Terra firma though the fringe here (some 5 miles west of C. Nares is 5 miles wide). Found Captain's igloo a few hundred yards further on. At 11- p.m. stopped for lunch, + at 6- a.m. of the 23rd reached the igloos at C. Columbia, 16 marches from the Pole. It has been a great return trip. Will never be done like this again. 53 days (43 marches) from land to beyond the Pole + back again. The devil must be asleep, or his attention taken up by trouble with his wife, or we should never have got back so comfortable. It has been a very comfortable return, + we have had full rations. But a little difference in the weather + all would have been changed. I am glad to be over the treacherous leads, + wide expanses of young ice, where a gale would have put an open sea between us + the land, + rendered our return problematical.

1909 04232304/23/1909 Robert E. Peary

A succession of breakages

04-22-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Black Horn Cliffs, Greenland
George Wardwell

Owing to an accident to one of the sledges I thought it advisable to go into camp off the Black Horn Cliffs after a march of only 5 hours. We seem to be very unfortunate in the breaking of our sledges. It has been a succession of breakages since leaving ship. As the loads are very heavy and walrus line nearly gone, it is beginning to assume a serious aspect! Thermometer 15 below tonight.

1909 04222204/22/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Colored glasses

04-21-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Between Ellesmere and Greenland
George Wardwell

We found the channel ice as Marvin and the Captain found it last winter, in perfect condition for a good march. Have made at least twenty miles. The glare of the sun has been trying to the eyes requiring the constant use of our colored glasses.

1909 042121b04/21/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Venison steak today

04-21-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty four below this morning at seven oclock and has been to fourteen during the day. It has been cloudy most of the day. We had venison steak today for dinner and it was so tender we could cut it with a fork. The Bar. is 30.14 tonight, (falling). One Eskimo man and one woman came in tonight only brought in one hare.

1909 04212104/21/1909 George Wardwell

No sleep last night

04-20-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Still perfect weather. Calm + not a cloud, but we are off the track + off the schedule. I anticipated trouble in this march across the region of the big lead + found it. Captain lost trail at most northerly lead + did not find it again. We had much trouble in crossing the southerly lead. Camped at Captain's igloo after 20 hour march. Dogs utterly lifeless. Hard march for me. No sleep last night, most uncomfortable march of trip. The igloo cold, my clothes wet, my jaw + head throbbing + burning. Knocked the thing out finally with quinine + "Analgesic". We are coming down upon the coast west of Columbia the ice having gone that way north of the big lead.

1909 04202004/20/1909 Robert E. Peary

full loaded sledges

04-19-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Leave today about noon (1.15) for Greenland to carry provisions to Cape Morris Jesup for Commander in case he and his party are driven to the eastward. Have six full loaded sledges, driven by Kiotah, Kudlookto, Inughito, Koola-tinah, Awah-tingah and Borup. We have planned to remain away from the ship for sixty or seventy days so it is necessary to load each sledge to the limit. Probably each sledge is carrying at least 600 lbs.

1909 04191904/19/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

An attack of quinsy

04-19-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Still fine weather, still on the schedule. Light snow fall while in camp, but ceased before we left. Started 5.30 p.m. 6th igloos at 11.45 lunch here, 5th igloos 7- a.m. Am suffering tonight from what has every symptom of an attack of quinsy. The land has come up surprisingly in this march showing our estimate (24' for both marches) to be about right. A difference of 24 naut. Miles makes a distinct difference in the apparent altitude of a coast or mountain.

1909 041919b04/19/1909 Robert E. Peary

Flag at half mast today

04-18-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Six below this morning went to seven above at Eleven oclock, and nine below again at four P.M. Two Eskimos came in last night from the Com. Marvin was coming with them and when four days from land he started ahead. While the Eskimos were packing the sledges after breakfast and when they got to the big lead they found he had started to cross and had broken through the young ice a hundred feet or more from the old and was dead. When they got to there they couldn't get out there to get his body they saw the back of his Coolatah above water and made camp there but next morning he had disappeared. I think they expected his clothes would freeze to the ice so they could get his body they staid there two days before they dared to cross. It was a long ways across and the ice was only from 1 ½ to 2 miles think all the ways. They left his things there as is customary with the Eskimos. Brought in letters and note books. As near as we can find out from the Eskimos Marvin was drowned the 10th of Apr. he left the Com. Mar. the 25th and they were then in Lat. 86.38. We have the Flag at half mast today. I have been on the water twenty nine years and that is the first man that was ever lost from a crew of any vessel I was a member of. It gave us all a great shock. All that have come in say that the Eskimos have warned them not to go on the young ice alone without trying it and these say they warned Marvin, but I suppose he did try it close to the heavy ice where it would be sure to be thick, and then went along thinking of something else, probably planning the other work that he had to start on as soon as he reached the ship. There is a light So. East wind tonight and the Bar. is 30.03.

1909 04181804/18/1909 George Wardwell

Thawed a little

04-17-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Ten below this morning and a light No. West breeze. The wind went down about 3 oclock this morning. Four Eskimos went away for a few days hunting in the Black Cliff bay regions. It has been fine today thawed a little on the black paint on the side of the ship. The Bar. is 30.03 tonight rose fast.

1909 04171704/17/1909 Robert E. Peary

Talked all day

04-16-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A gale of wind today and "pilk-sah tee-dick-suak" so we have read and talked all day long. No let-up tonight, has been blowing now for about 26 hours from the southward.

1909 04161604/16/1909 Robert E. Peary

At least sixty feet high

04-15-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

George and I made a trip to Belknap today, partly for the fun of sledging and partly to obtain pictures of a large berg probably the largest, or rather the highest floe berg we have seen on this coast. It looks at least sixty feet high. A perfect day, good sledging, and dogs feeling good made the trip most enjoyable.

1909 04151504/15/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Something is wrong

04-14-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

At home today and tried to develop some pictures. Something is wrong. Have lost two rolls, fortunately not those taken on the ice.

1909 04141404/14/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Camp Nansen

04-13-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Camp Nansen, Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Camp Nansen. A bitterly disagreeable march. Fresh S.W. wind + snow in our faces, stinging like needles + searching every opening in our clothing. Anticipated a storm it looked so threatening but towards morning it broke away + cleared off brilliantly with biting air from S.W.

1909 04131304/13/1909 Robert E. Peary

Borup came in last night

04-12-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Nineteen below this morning and has been about the same all day. Borup with two Eskimos came in last night from Cape Nares where he had been with provisions for the Com. if he should come back by the way of Crocker land or any of them should land over that way, for the drift of the ice is to the west instead of the East as it was on the last trip. Mc. said he drifted more than ten miles West coming in and Borup the same. Bar. 22.89 tonight.

1909 04121204/12/1909 George Wardwell

A pleasant surprise

04-11-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

George got in today, having come in from Cape Fanshawe Martin where he placed a cache for Commander. Koolatinah and Awah-tingwha are with him. He is looking fat and strong as a moose. Today a party of eight of us started up the valley to explore the two caves which I found last Sunday. Arriving at the upper entrance I lighted a lantern and started in followed by all. Three of the men in the rear had difficulty in following in the darkness and decided to go back. The passage finally became so small that we were obliged to crawl on hands and knees. Soon we emerged into a passage much larger and could feel a breeze against our faces indicating an opening down the valley. In a short time the sharp eyes of In-u-waho and Tecummah detected light in the distance which proved to be the lower entrance. In the meantime the three Kabloonahs had had some difficulty in making their way back, being obliged to use the utmost care to prevent their candles from being extinguished. A muffled report followed by a blast of air hastened their retreat. Going on down to the next a pleasant surprise awaited us in finding it much more rugged and picturesque but much shorter. Bear tracks were numerous throughout its whole length.

1909 04111104/11/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

I expect trouble

04-10-1909 : Morning
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Gale moderated during night, + gradually died away during day. Very thick. Light extremely tiring to eyes. Almost impossible see trail. Temp. -10° only. Covered Captain's last march. Did not attempt more. This march a long one, + I want better light conditions for the young ice in tomorrow's march where I expect trouble. Am greatly surprised not to find the young ice in today's march completely shattered by gale + trail obliterated. Reduced teams to seven dogs each here, + expended one.

1909 04101004/10/1909 Robert E. Peary

A wild day

04-09-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

A wild day. Strong N. N.E. (true) wind, increasing to a gale. Temp. -18° to -22°. All upward leads greatly widened + new ones formed. One north of 88th at least a mile wide. All covered with practicable young ice. Last half of march ice raftering under + all about us under pressure of the gale. Dogs scudding(?) before it most of the time on the gallop. 15 hours. Captain's igloo 12.30 a.m. at the 10th. Would have been impossible to travel except before the gale + following a trail. Ice going south with us. There has been no lateral movement yet.

1909 04090904/09/1909 Robert E. Peary

Dug around the ship

04-08-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Nineteen below this morning and went to ten during the day. Wind No. West light cloudy about all day, a little sunshine early this morning, and it has been raw all day. The Mate with the men dug around the ship yesterday a trench about 3 feet wide and in some places as much as 4 feet deep, but not all the way around. Were trying to get at the propeller and struck a crack and it let the water in so it filled the trench full again but didnt freeze more than a half inch last night, are trying to get the ice away all they can so the propeller will melt out early and also so the ship will upright sooner. The ice must be as much as 8 feet thick alongside the ship where they cut it down once before so she would break it off and right up but she didn't do it only went down more and it overflowed and added more than a foot at that time. Two Eskimos left soon after dinner today for a hunting trip and have got to get something to feed the dogs that came back or else kill them. The Bar. is 29.85 tonight.

1909 04080804/08/1909 George Wardwell

A great change

04-07-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Started out again today for cave which we explored partly by the light of a candle. A wind drawing through threatened to extinguish it so were compelled to return - will go again with a lantern. Set four traps at entrance and took a number of pictures. Tan-ching-wah came in today with some deer meat and two skins. A general cleaning of after-cabin by the women - a great change.

1909 04070704/07/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

The Pole at last!!!

04-06-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
The North Pole
George Wardwell

1909 04060604/06/1909 Robert E. Peary

Over the 89th!!

04-05-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Over the 89th!! Started early last evening. The march a duplicate of previous one as to weather + going. Temp. at starting -35°. Sledges appeared to head a little easier, dog on trot much of the time. Lost two hours on young ice of a north + south lead they were often galloping.10 hours 25 miles or more. Great. A 50 yd lead open when I reached it, moved enough by time sledges came up to let us cross. Still this biting cold, the face burning hours (like the Island Ice). The natives complain of it + at every camp are fixing their clothes about the face, waist, knees + wrist. They complain of their noses, which I never knew them to do before. It is keen + bitter as frozen steel. Light air from S during first of march, veering to E. + freshening as we camp. Another dog expended here. Tomorrow if ice + weather permit I shall make a long march, "boil the kettle" midway + try to make up the 5 miles lost on the 3rd. We have been very fortunate with the leads so far, but I am in constant + increasing dread of encountering one. Six weeks today since I left Roosevelt.

1909 04050504/05/1909 Robert E. Peary

They were making good time

04-04-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty nine below this morning and has been about the same all day, light breeze and clear. One Eskimo arr. at the ship at 9.30 last night. One of Borup's party, left the Com. Mar. 20th. All will arr. at the land the 26th and went to Cape Nare's with a load of provisions in case any of the parties should land over there it is West of Cape Columbia. The ice is drifting to the West this time instead of East. They were making good time and smoothe [sic] ice were past 85 when Borup left them. Were going 5 days more and then Marvin returns. Two Eskimo families left today for Etah. I sent a letter for the ship that comes after Mrs. Whitney to take back if she leaves before we get down there. The Bar. is 29.72 tonight, been to 29.85 since last night.

1909 04040404/04/1909 George Wardwell

Drifting and blowing

04-03-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Drifting and blowing all day long. Tonight Inughito came in from Cape Columbia with letter from George who left Commander on the March 20, five marches beyond where I left him. Came to land in 7 marches, held up 12 hours at the big lead. Has gone west to Cape Fanshawe to carry provisions. Marvin is to go on for five marches more.

1909 04030304/03/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Kept the pace

04-02-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

8 hours sound, warm, refreshing sleep. Left camp 5.- a.m. leaving others to break camp + follow. A fine morning; clear, temp. -28° wind of last days subsided. Going the best + most equable of any day yet. Large old floes, hard + level surrounded by pressure ridges, some of which almost stupendous, yet easily negotiable wither through some convenient gap or up the slop of some huge drifts. Came on at a good clip for about 4 hours when the sledges overtook me. After that obliged to sit on sledges most of the time (setting course by moon, our shadows, etc.) or else run to keep up. Kept the pace for 10 hours.

1909 04020204/02/1909 Robert E. Peary

We are ready now

04-01-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

After about 4 hours sleep turned everyone out at 5- a.m. announced which 2 Esks (Keshingwah + Karko) are to go back from here with the Captain, culled the best dogs from their teams to replace poorer ones in the other teams, repaired sledges thoroughly with the material from ones broken up, + re-arranged loads, compacting everything. Captain went north some 5 miles in forenoon, returning took latitude observations (87° 46' 49" hen left with his 2 men 1 sledge + 18 dogs. We are ready now for the final part of the journey, sledges thoroughly overhauled + strengthened, dogs the pick of 133, + dogs + men in training. It is the time for which I have reserved all my energies, + I feel tonight as if I was in turn, + equal to the demands upon me of the next few days. Assuming the Captain's figures to be correct we are 133 miles from the Pole, nine marches same average as our last 8, or 8 equal to the 3 from 85° 48' or 6 like yesterday will do the trick.

1909 04010104/01/1909 Robert E. Peary

Killed 11 more and a lot of hare

03-31-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Innuwaho, Tucumah and Tan ching-wah started out last night to visit Pooadloonah and Alettah up in Black Cliff Bay. Came back tonight with Au-gil-o-gibso bringing a kowatik full of deer meat and saying they at the igloo had killed 11 and a lot of hare. As all our fresh meat is gone this is a most welcome addition to our commissary department.

1909 03313103/31/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Felt more cold today

03-30-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

At 1- a.m. the ice was running violently but at 8- a.m. it was quiet, + the smoke + haze gone showing the water closed up or frozen over. Got under way, brilliant clear light, biting N.W. breeze, temp -33°, min during night -43°. We all traveled together crossing numerous cracks + very young ice, then across a lake of young ice (some of it bending under us) some 6-7 miles wide, light old floes, a great deal of recent (2 weeks to 1 month) ice in large areas, then heavy rubbled ice + continuous old floes, (20 m.). Camp on a fine level old floe. Have felt more cold today than any day since starting.

1909 03303003/30/1909 Robert E. Peary

Only a few clouds

03-29-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Sixteen below again this morning with a light No. West wind which cuts right through one. The sun has been out most of the day only a few clouds. The Mate with his men began today to cut the ice away around the stern of the ship and will continue all the way around as the weather warms up. The temperature has gone down to twenty four today. The Barometer is up to 30.36 now 5 P.M. and still rising.

1909 03292903/29/1909 George Wardwell

As my heel will permit

03-29-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Am having clothes repaired, canvas kamiks made for Greenland trip. Try to take a walk every day and do so as far as my heel will permit.

1909 032929b03/29/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Thick hazy smoke

03-28-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Brilliantly clear overhead. Thick smoky haze lying over ice. Light biting air from N.E. Min. during night -43°, at starting -32°. Left camp 10- a.m. + came on at a good clip till 4- p.m. when came on Captain in camp stopped by a wide lead. Dense black water sky N.W., N, N.E. (the source of all the haze). Build our igloos some 100 yards from Captain's. Going much better than previous 2 days; nearly direct + plenty large floes + recent ice. (12 miles).

1909 03282803/28/1909 Robert E. Peary

Air very biting

03-27-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
87th Parallel
George Wardwell

Got under way at 7.30 a.m. A fine day of brilliant sunshine but cold (-30° at starting, -40° end of march). Light N.E. air very biting, dogs smoking. Heaviest march of recent ones. At first much recent ice (1 ft.) raftered more or less then heavy rubble under deep old floes. A few level old floes. Reach Captain's camp in 6 hours among small very heavy old floes raftered all along edge (12 miles). As he had been in his igloo only some 3 hours when I arrived told him to turn in + sleep more + get under way about midnight. Lightened the sledges of his men over 100 lbs. each by taking some of their pemmican onto my sledges. Am glad of the drop in temperature. Hope it will continue. Do not like the temps in the teens + -20's. These mean open water. We are over the 87th parallel at this camp. Sun did not set last night. Two fox tracks crossed during day.

1909 03272703/27/1909 Robert E. Peary

37 days

03-26-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A general cleaning up of self and room and equipment. As I have not washed for 37 days, a bath was quite a luxury. Baked beans and brown bread never tasted so good as they did this morning - and the pork, heavens!

1909 032626b03/26/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Great hopes of making the Pole

03-26-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Nine below this morning at seven oclock, and went to two above at four this afternoon. It has been fine today, but the ice is running just outside of us and some pretty large blocks amongst it. McMillan, the Dr. and six Eskimos arrived last night about seven oclock from the Com. they went out on the ice about 90 miles in about 84.30 No. Lat. They left there the 14th of Mar. and said it was fine going and they were making 18 or 20 miles a day, and if they didn't run up against any leads for too long a time, they had great hopes of making the Pole this time, they havent had any wind to amount to anything, not much snow and what there was was so hard they didnt have to use the snowshoes any as yet. They were delayed at one lead for six days. Mc. said when he left the ice was as smooth as a house floor as far as the eye could reach, but said there was a black streak in the air in the distance and that is a sign of open water, but it may close up or freeze over by the time they reach it. Mc. said if they had as good going as they had when he left they should be a long ways past 86 no. Lat. by this time.

1909 03262603/26/1909 George Wardwell

Fresh bear tracks

03-25-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
86° 38’
George Wardwell

Turned out after 3 hours sleep + was under way before 3- a.m. Reached Captain's camp 10.30 a.m. A good march (20m.) over good going similar to Abruzzi's, + in a nearly direct line. Jumped in to repair sledges, reassign loads, weed out least effective dogs, + redistribute party. Captain with Oo-que-oh + Karko got away on the advance about 4- p.m. with 2 sledges + 18 dogs. Marvin took latitude observation (86° 38' N. Lat.) As I expected this places us beyond the Italian record 32 days ahead of him. Thick in morning with light snow fall, as during night + light n-ly air. Clear through middle of day, heavy bank of clouds in west in evening. Temp. -20° to -30°. Fresh bear tracks passed, going west. Marvin is to go back from here with Kudlooktoo + "Harrigan" 1 sledge + 18 dogs. The many details which I must see to personally, makes it a long + busy day for me.

1909 03252503/25/1909 Robert E. Peary

Up at 4-30

03-24-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Porter Bay, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Up at 4-30 ready for the long walk to Porter Bay. A disagreeable cold wind and drift in our faces, which ceased somewhat as we approached Sail Harbor. Good walking over the Parry and Feilden Penn. down to Porter Bay. Found the Doctor and his men resting here. He is obliged to travel slowly owing to the condition of Ooblooyah. Areo and Tan ching-wah started out after hare after supper. Woke me up at 11-30 with one all cooked in the pot. Enjoyed the fresh meat very much.

1909 03242403/24/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Seal seen in lead

03-23-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Started soon after midnight. Misty, evidently from open leads, temp. -32°. Some 5 miles from camp just succeeded in getting 4 sledges across an opening lead. Delayed here some 2 hours waiting for rear sledge which was ferried across the lead on a cake of ice. Seal seen in lead. Some heavy going, small old floes, high rafters, + some young ice, largely level old floes of considerable area + hard snow. Arrived Captain's camp 11.30 Henson still in igloo. At least 15 m. This puts us beyond 86° N. Lat.

1909 03232303/23/1909 Robert E. Peary

We have run short of fresh meat

03-22-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Seventeen below again this morning but went down to twenty two during the day, it has been fine though. Three of the boys went South this morning for a few days hunting two more with one Eskimo went out to Lake Hazen, one Eskimo went West. Two more Eskimos and two women went up to Black Cliff bay. I hope some of them will get something for we have run short of fresh meat, and there dont seem to be anything very close to the ship for game very few hare, and one dont see them very often only the tracks and can follow them a long ways without catching up they go a long ways to feed. The Bar. is 30.14 tonight.

1909 03222203/22/1909 George Wardwell

My heel pains me

03-21-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

A dull morning, but evidence of its clearing up, drifting a bit with some wind. My heel pains me so badly today I shall be obliged to ride most of the day. We are taking only the most essential things with us, such as stove, robes, etc., in case of a storm, intending to complete our journey to Ward Hunt Island and return here again tonight. Arrived at the island about 2 o'clock. Saw on the hill sides what we though to be hare. The Huskies grabbed rifles and started off on a run. The hare proved to be ptarmigan and impossible to shoot with a rifle. We left here for the Commander 2 tins of biscuit, 5 tins of blue pemmican, 5 of red, 5 of condensed milk, one can of tea, a small stove, 3 tins of alcohol, 3 of oil and a kowatik. Took picture of Kiotah standing near cache. Came back in 3 hours and 10 minutes.

1909 03212103/21/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Fear open leads

03-20-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Light snow during night + much of day (fear open leads) impossible take observations. Captain left on the advance early, 2 Esks, 2 sl., 16 d. Borup with 3 Esks, 1 sledge, 16 dogs started to return soon after. Then Henson followed Captain. 2 Esks, 2 sl., 24 d. Marvin + self remain here with 4 Esks, 5 sledges, 40 dogs. Marvin makes sounding (310 fath.) + loses lead. My party now consists 12 men, 10 sledges, 80 dogs. Half of this party will camp tonight one march beyond here.

1909 03202003/20/1909 Robert E. Peary

Nearly invisible dogs

03-19-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Brilliant clear day of yellow sunlight. Temp. in the -50's as shown by frozen brandy + nearly invisible dogs. Bubble in all 3 therms. + unable to register. Left supplies + equipment of Borup's party in camp thus lightening sledge loads over 200 lbs. A fair march (12 m.) Marvin in lead. Early part heavy ice + circuitous then level floes. This march puts us between 85° 7' + 85° 30' or about the lat. of Storm Camp of last trip.

1909 03191903/19/1909 Robert E. Peary

Note from the Captain

03-18-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty seven below this morning, and fine & clear but is clouding up now and seems chilly. The Mate and I went up over the hill with a gun but didnt see anything. One of the Eskimos that went away last night got a hare, and the two boys with an Eskimo got in today with 4 hare and a seal arrive at 12 oclock. Two Eskimos from the Coms. party arrived last night at 10. oclock, had a note from the Capt. saying they were forty miles from land and held up by a lead (open water) but expected to go along next day said it was fine going they had been out four days the seventh of March. Those two that came in said they were sick with a bad cold and have across the chest, but they seemed to be all right when they got here. They said there were two more with lame legs up a Cape Columbia and couldn't travel to the ship but say they got plenty to eat and plenty of oil. They had never left the land at all and one of them was to be with Mat. in the leading party. We thought him one of the best men. We dont have very dark nights snowy daylight until about nine. The Bar. is 30.10 tonight.

1909 03181803/18/1909 George Wardwell

Good light for pictures

03-17-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Kept right at it today, good trail and good going; finished the two marches long before sunset, arriving at the No. 2 igloos, the ones we missed on our way out. Found them close to a large pressure ridge. Took advantage of the good light for pictures. One of the dogs gave birth to pups while we were eating supper.

1909 03171703/17/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

I protested

03-16-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Could not make the double march today, it is such a long distance from No. 5 to No. 4. Was obliged to cross over ice rafting beneath our feet. The trail failed in many places and hard to find. Very cold last night, must have been at least 60° below as the Esquimaux could not sleep. They all wanted to turn in together in one igloo to keep warm but I protested against eight in one igloo; we would have been warm!

1909 03161603/16/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Ample supply alcohol + oil

03-15-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Marvin brought ample supply alcohol + oil, some pemmican, biscuit + milk, enabling me to leave this camp with 12 fully loaded sledges. MacMillan shows me his frosted heel + I send him back at once, with Kyotah, Tanchingwah, 2 sledges, + 11 dogs. 2 sledges left here, 2 or 3 broken up to repair others. Cold march with light but bitter e-ly [easterly] air. Heavy ice, fair going. Late in day movement of ice very perceptible. An active lead compels detour to west, + an hour or 2 later, a just formed one halts us, + compels us build igloos, though I know Henson's igloo must be close by.

1909 03151503/15/1909 Robert E. Peary

Frosted heel

03-14-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

The Doctor, We-shark-obsie and Areo went back this morning. Marvin and Borup came in tonight with 25 gal. of alcohol. I have a frosted heel and will go back in the morning with Kiotah and Tan-ching-wah. 40 below.

1909 03141403/14/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Welcome news

03-13-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Temp. during night -55° when starting -53°, + when we camped -59°. Good going + a good march (12m.). While making camp advance sledge from Marvin came in, (Sigloo) with a letter, bringing the welcome news that M- camped last night at our camp of the 11th (where Sigloo left him) that he will camp tonight at our camp of the 12th, + be here tomorrow night, bringing in much needed alcohol + oil. This enables me to start Henson + his division off in the morning pioneering, while the rest of us remain till M- comes in.

1909 03131303/13/1909 Robert E. Peary

Innumerable narrow leads

03-12-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Clear + calm. Temp. -45°. Ice rafting about us all night. A good march (12m.). First half over innumerable narrow leads + cracks, then heavier ice. This march must have put us beyond Nansen's starting point.

1909 03121203/12/1909 Robert E. Peary

16 or 18 miles

03-11-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

A good march today, probably 16 or 18 miles. Mostly flat but a few bad places. Have been with the Doctor all day.

1909 03111103/11/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

It will mean suffering

03-10-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

We have about given them up and will move on without them in the morning. It will mean suffering to reach the pole with such a small amount of fuel. Have built a cairn today of old pemmican cans so that it can be seen from the other side.

1909 03101003/10/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Too sly

03-10-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Fifteen below this morning, and fine, but it clouded up about noon and is snowing now. The ice was running all night and about all day just outside of us and making quite a squeaking and cracking. I was up over the hill this forenoon with a gun I saw a hare track that was made last night after it began to snow a little, and a fox track that was made this morning and where he caught a white mole and ate it, but did not follow it far for they are to [sic] sly. The Barometer is 30.24 now. Has been down to 30.21 and twenty two below this morning snowing a little and quite a breeze so it seems cold since we have had it so mild. We still have it quite dark nights, but they are quite short. The Boys with the Eskimo got back this forenoon they got two hare. The Barometer is 30.34 tonight at 7.15.

1909 031010b03/10/1909 George Wardwell

The ice was running pretty strong

03-09-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Only one below this morning and has been about the same all day cloudy and snowing a little. Couldn't see either sun or moon, it looked like rain this morning in the So. East, the wind was South light this morning, but is about West now and quite a little breeze. There is some water showing just outside a little ways. The ice was running pretty strong just off the Cape Sheridan this morning. I saw two of the women going off gunning this morning, they got nothing. The barometer is 30.24 tonight rising a little.

1909 03090903/09/1909 George Wardwell

Our sledges are all packed

03-08-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

The first attachment has returned to ship. Two or three of the Esquimaux were complaining of the hardships of the trip so Commander decided to get rid of them at once - Panikpah and Pooadloonah. The former has a bad shoulder, but could go on, the latter has lost his nerve. The lead is opening and shutting but we could cross if Marvin and Borup arrive. Commander is pacing back and forth in front of our igloo, getting a little anxious about them! I think. My family is again broken up. I am living with the Captain. Our sledges are all packed and ready for a start.

1909 03080803/08/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Lead widened during the night

03-07-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Another calm mild day. Min. during night -32° in morning rising to -15° + later to -8°. Lead widened during night more than at any other time but has remained quiet during the day. In evening Pooadloonah came to me whining he was sick + I packed him + Panikpah back for the land at once. Am done with those two. Rather hoped for M- + B- today but too late now. Today (3rd after full moon being max. range of spring tides) I hope movement of lead is at end.

1909 03070703/07/1909 Robert E. Peary

Losing their nerve

03-06-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

General repair day. Have on Commander's pants while mine are being fixed. There is no telling when we shall have another rest so it is well to put all my clothes on good sledge. Some of the Esquimaux are losing their nerve, complaining of lame shoulders, sore chests, frosted feet, etc. The "Big Lead" can be crossed today if Borup and Marvin would only come.

1909 03060603/06/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

I had enough

03-05-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Was routed out this morning by Commander's voice asking if I wanted to take a scout. I did and am just back at 10 o'clock at night. After a trip of about 35 miles, a dash down with empty sledges after Kiotah's load and all the provisions left at No. 3 by George. Left there at 4 o'clock. I told the sledges to go on, that I would walk. Before I got here I had enough. The lining of my bear skins wore through causing my legs to chafe badly. But a rest here for Marvin will fix them all right.

1909 03050503/05/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Cold feet

03-04-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

The Capt sent me back at end of 3rd igloo. A little distance the land side of 2nd igloo the trail was lost. When we found it again it was too late for me to overtake the Commander + make land the same day, so I determined to make land + load up with the standard loads. We had to cross a small lead + made land half way bet Columbia + Nares. Found Koodlookto here claiming to have been held up by open water. The huskies are not enthusiastic over our chances of overtaking the Commander. Our 3rd igloo was about 24 miles from land. If my huskies go back on me I'll go at [it] alone. Cold feet. Please leave a note in case I cant find the Commander as to what in hell to do.

1909 03040403/04/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

President Taft

03-04-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Eighteen below this morning at seven oclock. Went down to 24 and back up again as it came up cloudy and looks like snow. The wind is light from the So. East. The Bar. has gone up again to 30.02. I expect Pres. Taft takes his seat today. I doubt if it is Bryan, although we dont now much about it up here in this Country. What Americans there are here only one was for Bryan I think.

1909 030404b03/04/1909 George Wardwell

Almost saw the sun

03-03-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Clear. Fresh easterly wind all day. Made early start. Crossed lead over young ice raftering. Failed to pick up trail on other side, found ourselves on an ice island. Built wind shelter to repair two sledges. Sent man west to look for trail. He returned just as lead began closing. Crossed + reached trail. Borup has already passed on his return. After a while sent Marvin + Kyotah w. sledge + dogs back to Columbia in wake of Borup. Reached Captain's 3rd igloo. A good march. Almost saw the sun.

1909 03030303/03/1909 Robert E. Peary

I stepped on thin ice

03-02-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
On the Polar Sea
George Wardwell

Slept well and warm, although it was so cold that alcohol would not burn. The Esquimaux thought the devil was in it and looked worried enough. They are ready to attribute most anything to the devil out here on the ice. It has been cloudy all day. The going not all that could be desired in places. Was unfortunate enough to upset my kowa-tik three times, once in a deep hole. If a man likes to swear, here is his opportunity - if he is not subject to the habit here is where he commences - koma-tik bottom up in a hole, load spilled, eight dogs up above you on a mound of snow, some contentedly lying down, others wagging their tails and looking down on you as much as to say "Sorry, old fellow, but here's where we rest". But such an experience is not without its lessons. You can't stay there. You must get that kowa-tik out of that hole, up over that rise and along the trail into camp, if it weighs a ton, and generally by your own efforts. It is every man for himself and the devil take the hindmost especially if he is a "kab-loonah" and no Husky to whip his dogs for him. About four o'clock sighted the sledges all assembled near a large ice pressure. On coming up I learned that we were stopped by open water. The Commander decided to build igloos here and wait until morning. He sent Marvin and I out with dog team to the open water to take a sounding. Found the ice so thin it would not bear own weight. Got bottom at 96 fathoms. In lifting out the lead out of the hole I stepped on thin ice and went through to my hip. Saved myself by grasping up-stander of sledge. Hustled back to camp where Commander dried my leg on his blanket shirt. Put on kamik-puks and felt very comfortable at 40 below.

1909 03020203/02/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

We have it pretty light

03-01-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty three below this morning and very fine no wind. Could see the glow in the south today, and the moon is quite large so we have it pretty light for the whole 24 hours now. I am having a sheep skin Coolateh made today so I can go gunning when the sun gets back and we ought to see it in two or three days.

1909 03010103/01/1909 George Wardwell

I shall be obliged to drive a team

02-28-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Camp Crane, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The most comfortable night I have had for a long time, fine and warm in the igloo with our lamps all drying out clothes. The Captain and Borup left about 7 o'clock. A beautiful day for a start. Temperature about -45 below. Am using the Captain's igloo for drying out my koola-tah and ah-let. Commander called me over for a can of hash. Since I was sick at Cape Richardson, the pemmican is hard to swallow. The dogs are being re-aranged. My team is broken up, am sorry to lose them, we have had some good times together. They are all pets and probably very few will survive the northern trip. Am informed late tonight that I shall be obliged to drive a team owing to the illness of Inu-ghito and Ooblooyah.

1909 02282802/28/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

So cold last night

02-27-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Camp Crane, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

So cold last night the Huskies could not sleep. My toes, fingers and nose are [unreadable] either in the night or while sledging. I am wet with sweat during the day and shiver during the night especially after drinking cold water to quench my thirst. We arrived at Camp Crane about 3 o'clock finding everyone on the hustle, packing sledges, etc. The Captain and Borup are to start north in the morning - a pioneer party picking our trail and laying the course. Had tea with Marvin and later in my own igloo and then again with the Captain so "I can still chew but not swallow", am full of pemmican, biscuit, condensed milk, nuts, prunes, coffee, tea, and chocolate. Got together and had a sing, sang everything we didn't know!

1909 02272702/27/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Had our tea early

02-26-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Goode Point, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Had our tea early, left everything and ran down to Colan for our load of 441 lbs. Came back to igloo and had coffee - the best I have ever tasted. Pushed on for No. 3 igloo off Goode Pt. A very cold day. Temperatures at -58 below.

1909 02262602/26/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

57 below zero

02-25-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Colan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We double up our dogs this morning so as to bring up empty sledges from Colan, giving us a supply in case of breakage. George and I start out together on a lark. Lose the trail and wander all over the ice. When out about three hours we see Esquimaux aside of us. We turn in and find them on the trail - Marvin's party - We-shark-obsie, Kiotah and Tan-ching-wah. Marvin came along soon and informed us that the Commander was a day behind him. In about two hours we met the Doctor and his party and learned from him that the Commander was right on his heels. We soon met him and was surprised to have him tell us that George's face was frozen and my nose. We knew it was cold but did not think it was 57 below zero. Arriving at the double igloo, 3 miles from Colan, we found our Huskies awaiting us as we had ordered them, so camped here tonight.

1909 02252502/25/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

In camp all day

02-24-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Camp Crane, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Heavy wind and drifting snow have kept us in camp all day. Cleared up about three o'clock, giving us an opportunity to clear traces, feed dogs and build an igloo which will be ready for us on our return from Cape Colan. The Captain has a can of butter which tastes mighty good on our biscuit.

1909 02242402/24/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

It is very warm and comfortable

02-23-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Camp Crane, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A short march today to Camp Crane. Met the Doctor with his two men, Inughito and Panikpah, on the return trip to Cape Colan with empty sledges. Gave him letter from Commander. Arrived here about noon. Matt had built an igloo for himself so we took possession of the big one. About three o'clock Captain and his two men came in from Parr Bay where they had been hunting. His party and mine are all in together tonight. It is very warm and comfortable. Borup and his men came in tonight. They have built an igloo. We shall go together to Cape Colan in the morning.

1909 02232302/23/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

The Commander left today

02-22-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty seven below this morning at seven oclock. The wind from the south and has been snowing a little all day, but not enough to amount to anything and very little wind. The Com. left today for the Northern trip with two Eskimos the last of the party he is one day earlier than last time. We haven't had any heavy gales this time so expect the ice will be in pretty good condition but can't tell what has been going on to the far north of us but am in hopes the ice isn't broken up any, although expect deep snow for the wind hasnt blown hard enough here to pack it down hard.

1909 02222202/22/1909 George Wardwell

A soft trail all day

02-21-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Colan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A soft trail all day long. Took on pemmican, oil and biscuit at Cape Colan. We now have the maximum load about 500 lbs. Came on about 5 miles beyond Cape Colan and built two igloos. For a while this afternoon we could see dogs teams ahead of us. This must be the Doctor's party who left ship two days ahead of us, probably held up by wind and drift.

1909 02212102/21/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Good going

02-20-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Sail Harbor, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Had good going across the Sheridan Peninsula and James Ross Bay. Snow drifted some at Sail Harbor. Took on 10 gal. of alcohol on each sledge at Porter Bay according to Commander's orders. Remain at Sail Harbor over night.

1909 02202002/20/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A little snow in the air

02-19-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Eighteen below this morning, at seven oclock. We had a heavy breeze and some snow for awhile this morning, the wind went down about ten but there is still a little snow in the air. Borup with three natives left about eleven for the Northern trip. He don't expect to get farther than Cape Richardson tonight he intended to go to Porter bay and catch up with Mat. as he had to stop there one day an solder up three cases of one gallon cans of alcohol, that were made of very thin tin and leak some.

1909 02191902/19/1909 George Wardwell

Dogs gave me trouble

02-18-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Richardson, Ellef Ringnes Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Left ship today for the northern trip in company with Matt and five Esquimaux. A strong wind and drifting snow seem to come out of a clear sky just as we were ready to start delaying us until about 10 o'clock. My dogs gave me trouble. They were the "ship's dogs" so called, Eagle Island and Hudson River dogs; had never been driven together, did not know their place, were afraid of the Huskies and other dogs. Matt and his were moved along too fast for me so Koola-tinga waited for me at Cape Richardson where we camped in a snow igloo for the night.

1909 02181802/18/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Tidal observations

02-17-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty five below this morning, at seven and clear, but came up cloudy and snowed a little the rest of the day, and is frosty now. Marvin and Wiseman with three natives arr. about six tonight from taking tidal observations on the Greenland side. They had over three feet range in tides over there. I suppose that is what makes the ice brake [sic] off so often over there. He said the tide acted funny over there one day it would be quite high the next low and then high again. They didnt see a thing in the shape of game.

1909 02171702/17/1909 George Wardwell

A heavy breeze blowing

02-16-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty eight below this morning at seven oclock and a heavy breeze blowing. About ten AM the wind went down and the ther. [thermometer] up to thirty one and the Dr. left at 10.30 with 3 Eskimos for the trip north and help get things in shape to leave the land when the Com. gets there they all expect to get away this week. It has been quite light today, but kind of hazy and cloudy around the horizon. The Barometer went to 29.10 this morning and we thought we were going to have a long breeze, but it ended quick.

1909 02161602/16/1909 George Wardwell

My birthday

02-15-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

(My birthday) and I dont feel half as old as I look. Forty below this morning at seven oclock, but it is fine and clear and quite light but dark as any winter night at home now although the stars are shining bright. It was light enough this morning so we could only see two of the largest planets. The Capt. with three Eskimos left this morning for the trip north, to build Igloos collect the provisions and have things ready when the rest of the party get there, and then they all leave the land together, excepting the road maker who leaves a day ahead of the rest.

1909 02151502/15/1909 George Wardwell

Had a brief talk

02-14-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Another piblockto dog today. Everyone busy on preparations for their departure next week. This evening had a brief talk with the Eskimo men telling them what I proposed to do, what I expected of them, + what each man who went to the farthest point with me would get when he returned his boat, tent, Winchester repeater, shotgun, box tobacco, pipes, cartridges, numerous knives, hatchets etc. Conditions in this vicinity seem very different from 3 yrs. ago. Then there was abundance of water, now there appears to be none.

1909 02141402/14/1909 Robert E. Peary

One week from today

02-13-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Strong n-ly gale all last night + today, falling calm + clear this morning. Went to the water hole a mile distant with two Esks, facing the wind. Temp. only -23°. 2 more dogs dead from "piblockto" this week. Borup came in Wednesday. He saw no recent tracks of any game. I hope this additional northerly gale has completed the packing of the snow + the compacting of the ice against the land. While telling Henson today of the program for the march, he said that had the parties been closer together last time the first ones could have got across the Big Lead. This is a direct admission by him of what I knew at the time that he + his party were afraid of the leads + did not cross them until the rear parties caught up with them, or they knew they were close behind. One week from today I hope to start on the northern trip.

1909 02131302/13/1909 Robert E. Peary

Getting things ready for the trip north

02-12-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty six below this morning at seven oclock. It has been thick and frothy all day. The moon is gone but we get quite a lot of daylight in the forenoon now. Everybody is hustling now getting things ready for the trip north.

1909 02121202/12/1909 George Wardwell

The ice still snaps and cracks

02-11-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Forty three below this morning and has been about the same all day. It was quite light for awhile today but is clouding up again now. The moon is about gone. McMillan was up to the cairn today to see the thermometer he said it had only been down to forty five and a half below up there. The ice still snaps and cracks at every tide. It sounds pretty loud sometimes. We are still listed over and I think a little more on each high run of tides. It is very uncomfitable [sic] getting around or sitting down. The floor is wet some of the time from the snow brought in the gangway and is quite slippery. It generally gets dry nights.

1909 02111102/11/1909 George Wardwell

We are all busy

02-10-1909 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Very light today. The Doctor is back from transporting supplies to Cape Colan from Sail Harbor. Borup got in today from a hunting trip to Clements Markham Inlet - no luck. We are all busy with our equipment preparing to leave for Cape Aldrich next week. The Captain will probably go Monday, the Doctor Tuesday, and I Wednesday.

1909 02101002/10/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

I hope to start in 10 days

02-09-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Temperatures still holding down in neighborhood of -40°, high barom., some thick weather + tending to blow from N.W. Sat. was quite a disagreeable day. Dr. came in just at breakfast time. He has come from Sail Harbor in one march stopping at Richardson 3 hours to eat + rest dogs. He moved everything to Colan in 2 trips. The Captain is billed to get away next Monday (15th) the others to follow in succession. I hope to start in 10 days. I want to get away from Columbia not later than Mar. 1.

1909 02090902/09/1909 Robert E. Peary

The wind cuts right through

02-08-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty eight below this morning at seven oclock, but went down to forty four during the day and is dark and snowing all day and the wind cuts right through anyone unless rigged out in furs.

1909 02080802/08/1909 George Wardwell

Feels pretty cold

02-07-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty five below this morning but went down to forty one during the day. Quite a breeze today and still hazy and feels pretty cold.

1909 02070702/07/1909 George Wardwell

Can just see the moon

02-06-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Only twenty five this morning it was forty below last night. The wind breezed up in the night and it began to snow and has snowed a little all day, and is dark and snowing a little now, can just see the moon through the haze.

1909 02060602/06/1909 George Wardwell

Serious leakage

02-05-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Since Tuesday noon it has been very satisfactory weather, clear, calm, temp. averaging pretty close to -40°. This weather following the n-ly gale of Sunday, Monday + Tuesday which presumably packed the ice down against the land should tend to current + hold it there. At 7-P.M. Captain returned with his men. His Sunday march was a disagreeable one (10 hours to Richardson against the wind). The Dr. + Borup arrived Sail Harbor Thursday morning just as he was leaving. (2 marches from the ship). He tells me of serious leakage of the alcohol. Full moon yesterday.

1909 02050502/05/1909 Robert E. Peary

Had a gymnasium class

02-04-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Not much to write about day by day. Our life is about the same from one day to the next. Captain got away Monday night for Hecla. Borup and the Doctor left yesterday for Colan and the Inlet for a ten day trip. We are having a beautiful moon now, perfect weather, temperature at -43 tonight. Have had a gymnasium class in tumbling on the ice tonight for boys. Altho our mittens froze solid still we were too warm for comfort. It is getting lighter every day. Am trying some moonlight pictures of the Roosevelt exposing films about four hours.

1909 02040402/04/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

A fine day to travel

02-03-1909 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty five below this morning at seven oclock and has been down to forty two below but is going up again got to thirty eight below. It has been fine today clear and quite light with nearly a full moon it fulls tomorrow. The boys have been digging the ice away around the stern today so it wont bear too heavy on the propeller when the tide goes down. It is cracked up some around the stern and makes aloud noise once in a while when the tide is going down and it cracks. Those that are out are having a fine day to travel.

1909 02030302/03/1909 George Wardwell

This evening is perfect

02-02-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The wind continued until noon today. Immediately after dinner Dr. + 3 Esks, + Borup with 4 Esks (9 teams of 7 dogs each) got away. Both go to Sail Harbor. Borup then goes into Markham Inlet for M.O. + the Dr. moves supplies from Sail Harbor to C. Colan. This evening is perfect, brilliant moonlight, perfectly calm, temp. -30°. Before leaving Dr. completed approx. monthly means which show temp. for every month except Oct. to be lower than 3 yrs. ago. For Dec. the mean is 8° lower.

1909 02020202/02/1909 Robert E. Peary

Blew hard all night

02-01-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

From one oclock last night until this morning the Thermometer went from twenty six below to Thirty five below and has been about the same all day with a heavy breeze blowing. It blew hard all night. The Capt. and his men wont have a very pleasant time if this wind keeps up. The Dr. with four men intended to go out today but the wind blew so they gave it up. Will probably go tomorrow if pleasant.

1909 02010102/01/1909 George Wardwell

Furious drift

01-31-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Continuance of clear cold weather until this morning (the date I set a week ago for the Captain's departure) when it began to blow. Captain + 8 Esks. + sledges got away about 10 A.M. for Sail Harbor + C. Hecla. Late in afternoon began blowing harder (N.W.) with furious drift. I hope the Captain with his light sledges reached Richardson before the strength of the gale came on.

1909 01313101/31/1909 Robert E. Peary

Hare pie today for dinner

01-30-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty below this morning and has been about the same all day. It has been thick about all day, but the moon is coming out a little now so it is quite light this evening. The boys have from 4 to six feet of water every day from the pond about a mile from here. The Eskimos go with them to drive the dogs. We had a hare pie today for dinner.

1909 01303001/30/1909 George Wardwell

It doesn't hurt him very much

01-29-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty four below this morning at seven oclock. But went down to forty below at four this afternoon. Can see a little daylight mornings. The moon and stars have been very bright today so it is fine and light. The range of the tides are about three feet now, and it makes the ice snap and crack around the ship, and bergs aground. One of the Eskimos (Ohgueer) went in where Mat.and the Second are at work on cookers etc. the other night and drank some of the acid out of the jar that had been cut, it didnt hurt him very much. He says his lungs and stomach are pretty sore. He was looking for whiskey. If he had taken the raw acid out of the bottle that was in a box there, he wouldnt, even look for whiskey or anything else now.

1909 01292901/29/1909 George Wardwell

No sanguine hopes

01-28-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Continuance of satisfactory weather (calm + cold) till this morning when temp. jumped from about -40° to -25° with light snow + fog. Tonight however it is clear again + bright moonlight. Moon returned day before yesterday, Thank Heaven we shall see no more [?]. Busy on clothing, outlined program for the work beginning end of the week today. The weather this time has been very different from the last. Sunday morning the barom. started down + fell rapidly all day + night + part of Monday yet we got only a few hours of not violent wind. Three years ago we would have had a furious blow. The indications seem favorable for a better condition of the ice this year than last. There is at present little or no water to permit extensive movement of the ice, + the absence of wind should leave the ice smoother. There is however ample time yet for these conditions to be completely changed, + I am indulging in no sanguine hopes. On the contrary I am constantly holding before myself, my return home empty handed as always hitherto.

1909 01282801/28/1909 Robert E. Peary

The moon came out early

01-27-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty eight below this morning, and has been going back and forth all day up to forty two. The moon came out early this morning and we will get it the 24 hours around now, and a little daylight now with the moon makes it quite light.

1909 01272701/27/1909 George Wardwell

Caught a glimpse of the moon

01-26-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty six below this morning and went to thirty one during the day could see quite a streak of light in the south this morning, but it has been cloudy and frosty all day so it is dark as ever. We caught a glimpse of the moon last night and could see the outline of it 7 or 8 hours today, it is almost a quarter. Will be the 28th and full the 4th of February. One sick dog today, they are holding out well if nothing happens between now and the middle of Feb. there will be plenty of them.

1909 01262601/26/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Quite a little daylight now

01-25-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Forty five below this morning but the wind began to blow about noon and it is very cold now the temperature has gone up to forty. Can see quite a little daylight now. Now mornings it gains a little every day. It was pretty frosty this morning so it was not as light as it would be. It looks good to see the daylight once more but it will be some time before we see the sun the 4 or 5 of Mar.

1909 01252501/25/1909 George Wardwell

Busy this week

01-24-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A fine day. Clear + calm. Temp. -40°F. The twilight rapidly increasing. Today for first time a faint ruddy tinge under C. Rawson just before noon. Walked out to the lake water hole + could easily see the sledge tracks going + coming. Dog feeding day today + I increased the ration. It looks as if I should have walrus meat sufficient to last (alternate feeding) to the end of the month. Two or three more dogs have died of Piblockto. Busy this week on clothing, sounding lines, stores, repairs to sledges etc. During week also have finished up the work of deer photography.

1909 01242401/24/1909 Robert E. Peary

Overhauling the sledges

01-23-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty six below again this morning and went to thirty one during the day. I have been drilling a little today and groved [sic] three covers also. Mat. is overhauling the sledges to see that they will be all right for the trip. The Capt. and some of the boys are marking a sounding wire off in fathoms by soldering wire on at the different places.

1909 01232301/23/1909 George Wardwell

I am working onboard

01-22-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty six below this morning, and clear weather. It went down to forty below during the day. The Second and Mat are still working onshore and I am working onboard on kerosene can cookers and covers etc.

1909 01222201/22/1909 George Wardwell

Drilled a few holes

01-21-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Forty two below this morning at seven oclock and has been about the same all day. It has been dark and frosty since about nine oclock this morning, can only see a few stars overhead now, and they are dim. I made another ground glass for Borup. He broke the last one today. They are for his Camera for focusing. Groved [sic] a couple of covers, and drilled a few holes in the ice melting machine and cooker.

1909 01212101/21/1909 George Wardwell

Heavy squall at four

01-20-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty eight below this morning at seven oclock. Only gone up a half of a degree in all day. There was a heavy squall at four oclock this morning but it didn't last very long, or disturb anything. I groved [sic] three covers today. McMillan put a registering thermometer up on the hill in the cairn [sic] today so to see how low it goes up there.

1909 01202001/20/1909 George Wardwell

Getting ready for the northern trip

01-19-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty seven below this morning at seven oclock. It went down to forty and one half during the day, a little daylight shows in the morning but it is dark as usual the rest of the day and night. The stars shine just as bright day and night as they have all winter, everybody is getting ready for the Northern trip now. I am improving the cover's to the cookers by grooving to retard the flow of water (ice melters also).

1909 01191901/19/1909 George Wardwell

The sun is coming north

01-18-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty six below this morning, but went down to forty three during the day and very dark. We could see a little glimmer of light in the south early this morning but it didnt last long, but I expect it will gain pretty fast now, for the sun is coming north pretty fast. The daylight seems to come back quicker than it goes. There was a light breeze from the East a little while today.

1909 01181801/18/1909 George Wardwell

Returning life

01-17-1909 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Mother's birthday. Paced the ice foot for an hour or two with thoughts of her. Clear all day. Calm in morning, then a fresh n-w squall with heavy drift for two or three hours then nearly calm again. Temp. down to -38°. The noon twilight is very pronounced now + I feel returning life. The R-'s slender, graceful spars point almost to Polaris, + her nose lines doggedly at the Pole. Her slowly increasing list is more pronounced now. More photos of deer heads today in continuation of those of yesterday + day before. Shall have some fine plates, though there is an infinite amount of discouraging detail, + annoying obstacles in the work. In the last few days have modelled two bull M.O. fighting, (body of one oakum, the other snow) for future photographing. Friday another dog taken with the "piblokto", ordered shot, + was promptly eaten by the Eskimos. The women are busily engaged on clothing now, have been steadily distributing material for this the last few days. In doing this have learned that some of my men are distinctly shaky about going north on the ice again. I may have trouble with them yet.

1909 01171701/17/1909 Robert E. Peary

Fix up something

01-16-1909 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty six below this morning. Still dark and frosty. Borup is getting ready to take some pictures of Musk oxen that The Com. and Mate have stuffed and set up on deck. I expanded a couple of rings around the cover of an aluminum cooker today and expect I have got to fix up something for eyes for the Musk oxen.

1909 01161601/16/1909 George Wardwell

Patent cookers

01-15-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Only fifteen below this morning, frosty and thick all day with a little breeze. The Second and Mat. are at work in the boxhouse onshore on some patent cookers or water heaters for alcohol stoves. I concaved one of the stoves bottom's today so it wont hold quite as much and think it will give a better blaze the Com. is going to try it before I do anymore.

1909 01151501/15/1909 George Wardwell

Digging the ice

01-14-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty six below this morning, at seven oclock. Went to fifteen during the day. It has been frosty and quite a breeze all day and as dark as we have had it any time this Winter. The boys are digging the ice away from the ship on the inshore side. Are cutting down from 4 to 6 feet and about 2 feet away from the ship and leaving a bar in every 8 feet so if a pressure comes she will rise and break it off slanting and go on top of it.

1909 01141401/14/1909 George Wardwell

No sign of water north or south

01-13-1909 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Captain came in at 9 A.M. with his men, + Marvin's supporting party of 4. I was just getting ready to be worried about them. He reports thick weather much of the time, but they made a fine crossing of the Channel from Lincoln Bay to about 5 miles of C. Brevoort in 6 hours, on the 3rd over level [ice], this season's ice about 4' thick, + came back the same way. Captain went to head up Newman Bay which he says is covered with this years ice, + reconnoitered the plain of Polaris Peninsula but saw no traces of M.O. A letter from Marvin by Pooadloonah says they are at C. Stanton on the 10th. To that point had travelled 3 to 4 miles off shore. Did not have to portage round Black Horn Cliffs. Captain saw no signs of water north or south. I hope the n-ly winds we have had has packed the ice down against the coast, + if we have no southerly winds as 3 yrs. ago, there may be no slack in the ice as there was before.

1909 01131301/13/1909 Robert E. Peary

Six with one shot

01-12-1909 : Morning
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty six below this morning. Can hear the ice running a little ways from us tonight. The moon went behind the hill about four this afternoon. Will show again about 8 tonight. Borup and four Eskimos came in this morning about 7.30. They had killed 83 hare in the Lake Hazen region brought in between 50 and 60. They ate some and they had to leave some out one or two nights and the foxes ate 13 of them. Penapah killed six with one shot. They got lost in the storm for 24 hours the wind and snow blew so they couldn't travel or find their way and no knives to cut snow to build an Igloo. So the Eskimos lay down and let the snow blow over them and went to sleep. One told me he was very cold [al]most died. Borup didnt dare lay down for his feet were cold and he was afraid they would freeze. So he kept on the move the whole 24 hours he said he was glad when it cleared up, although he said he was warm enough except his feet, but it was very tiresome walking around for the whole time. Borup said they got 60 of the hare out of one big flock said there were lots of them but it was dark so they couldn't see them very well the wind and snow blew most of the time it happened to be quite light when they got the 60. He said it looked like a big snow bank moving along, they are large ones, I should think they would weigh from 7 to 9 pounds each.

1909 01121201/12/1909 Robert E. Peary

Nothing of interest

01-11-1909 : Morning
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Nothing of interest or event the last few days. Henson finished his 4th 2" Peary sledge Saturday night + began today on the alcohol stoves. About noon Dr. + his party came in. No luck. Tracks of 6 M.O. made since Henson was in there were seen. Damn them we will have some of them yet.

1909 01111101/11/1909 Robert E. Peary

Moon is circling low

01-10-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Fourteen below this morning at seven oclock. It is still frosty around the horizon and the moon is circling low so it keeps in the haze all the time and makes it dark and nasty. It must be bad for the parties out hunting. I dont believe they will be able to find much game.

1909 01101001/10/1909 George Wardwell

Making tin boxes

01-09-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Fifteen below this morning at seven oclock and has been between eleven and seventeen below all day. It has been very thick all day, and the moon is shining out through the mist now like the sun through the fog. There has been a frost falling all day but it doesn't increase the snow any. The Second is making tin boxes for package tea and will solder it up tight for the northern trip. So it wont get wet if the sledge should get in the water.

1909 01090901/09/1909 George Wardwell

Off the ship today

01-08-1909 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Off the ship today for the first time since Monday Dec. 28th. Bilious attack with blinding headache, nausea, fever, etc. Am O.K. now except for weakness. Marvin + Captain with 9 Esks, + 54 dogs got away after dinner of the 29th for the Greenland coast. Dr. + Borup left after dinner of Wed. 30th for Clements Markham Inlet + the interior respectively, with 7 Esks. + 36 dogs.

1909 01080801/08/1909 Robert E. Peary

More like fog

01-07-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty seven below this morning, but calm and didnt feel very cold. It has been cloudy all day, frosty more like fog than anything else. The men that are out hunting are not having a very good moon.

1909 01070701/07/1909 George Wardwell

As low as -13

01-06-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We are having beautiful weather, bright moonlight and surprisingly warm, the thermometer indicating as low as -13, but gradually going down to -25 toward night. Egingwah got back from Cape Union today with note from Marvin, but nothing definite could be learned from his movements. Commander is better but not out yet.

1909 01060601/06/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Seems warm

01-05-1909 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty three below this morning, and no wind seems warm. It came up cloudy soon after breakfast and had snowed a little today and the moon has been hidden most of the afternoon and evening and thick out now.

1909 01050501/05/1909 George Wardwell

About seven hours

01-04-1909 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty eight below this morning and fine and clear all day and very bright tonight. Two natives left tonight to go down to where Marvin and the Capt. crossed to get a letter that they will leave on a pole or [in] a pile of rocks on this side of the Channel. It will take them about seven hours to go down to where they think they crossed.

1909 01040401/04/1909 George Wardwell

Writing my second report

01-03-1909 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Dug through ice to determine thickness, one hole 44 inches, and other 46 ½ in. A quiet day nearly everyone sleeping or reading. After supper Charlie livened up things a bit by starting the graphaphone. Am writing my second report - trip to Cape Aldrich. Has been a stormy day, sky completely overcast, and windy, thermometer ranging from -25 to -35.

1909 01030301/03/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

Twice as cold

01-02-1909 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty four below this morning and quite a good breeze blowing from the west and it seems twice as cold as it did yesterday. The Com. had a hole cut through the ice inside of the ice foot and there was forty four inches of new ice. McMillan said that wasn't any thicker than it was the first of last month, and are going to try it in a different place tomorrow.

1909 01020201/02/1909 George Wardwell

Commander is not well

01-01-1909 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Commander is not at all well; a bad case of indigestion keeps him to his room and for the most part to his bed. I am very sorry as I am selfish enough to want him all to myself for the next two weeks while the boys are away. Started on my report today of my Clements Markham Inlet trip. Changed watch tonight which makes is much easier for me, and gives me more opportunity for writing.

1909 01010101/01/1909 Donald B. MacMillan

New Year

12-31-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A cold day for our hunting parties 41 below. Bright moonlight. Paddy takes my watch tonight giving me an opportunity to write my reports on the Clements Markham Inlet trip and the Cape Aldrich trip. At midnight the boys fired a salute with shot guns and rang our bell regularly in welcome to the New Year, one which will mean much to us if Commander reaches 90.

1908 12313112/31/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Up to his knees

12-30-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty three below this morning, and a little breeze but clear and fine all the stars in the heavens shining, and the moon arose about three this afternoon so it is quite light now but will soon swing around behind the hills. The Dr. with three natives left this afternoon for Clements Markham Inlet to try their luck again for Musk oxen. And Borup left with four natives for the Lake Hazen region to try it again they think perhaps the Musk oxen may wander around that way again if there are any in the country. The Capt. said there was fine feed for them in some places the goose was up to his knees and lots of it, in a kind of a bog. And no snow when he was there.

1908 12303012/30/1908 George Wardwell

Rough outside

12-29-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Somebodys birthday (Whose?) and how old. Twenty six below this morning frosty around the horizon, but clear overhead, we saw the moon for a few minutes last night and a little while tonight but the frost is so thick I dont expect we will see it again tonight for it is only just above the horizon now and goes around behind the hill. The Capt. left tonight at 5:15 with three natives to go over on the Greenland side to the head of Newman bay to look for musk oxen, and Marvin left at the same time for Cape Bryant Greenland with one fireman, and six natives to haul the provisions and gear for the tidal observations he is to take them for a month. They may have to go quite a ways south to get across, as it is open water and rough outside of us.

1908 12292912/29/1908 George Wardwell

Taking notes

12-28-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Am reading Nansen again and taking notes. Am surprised to learn that on outward trip he covered only a little over 6 miles a day but on the return sometimes 20 and 25 miles a day. Covered 161 miles in 25 days.

1908 12282812/28/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Time for the moon

12-27-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty nine below this morning and a good breeze blowing so it feels pretty cold. It went to only six below in the night, there was a light breeze from the So. East but today the wind was from the West. It is about time for the moon to begin to show itself. It has been very dark today and the snow has been blowing.

1908 12272712/27/1908 George Wardwell

Paying more attention

12-26-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Am reading Nansen over again and find it just as interesting as at first, perhaps even more so as I am paying more attention to details of the expedition. Their life on the Fram was certainly a monotonous one, “erererable” Nansen calls it. Basing calculations on their progress of the first five months it would take them eight years to drift across the pole, a but discouraging to an expedition provisioned for five years. George, the Doctor and the Captain received their instructions today for the next moon. George will go inland with Panik-pah and Ooblooyah toward Lake Hazen for deer; the Doctor to Clements Markham Inlet, the Captain to the Greenland side for musk-oxen. Will probably leave Thursday.

1908 12262612/26/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Frosted cake, with plenty of candy on top

12-25-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty three below this morning and not much wind. We had races today the Eskimos ran and the boys forward and aft. They got tobacco and knives, those that won. And then they all shook dice, the mate got it aft a jackknife and one of the boys forward got a box of cigars. The women got a pair of sissors [sic]. The Governor of N.F.L.D. and Citizens sent a lot of Tobacco, Candy, pipes and wine for the N.F.L.D. men. Mrs. Peary put on board candy and shelled nuts for us all, and everybody but me had a Christmas box to open. From their friends, filled with cakes and candy. We had a good dinner of musk ox roast, rice soup, canned English plum duff, brandy sauce, frosted cake, with plenty of candy on top, gave the Eskimos all an extra feed today also, each a can of salmon and those with children two cans, lots of brisket and Coffee. They had a big feed the day the sun started to come back so they think they are having lots of fun. One of the Eskimo men got a large hunting knife shaking the dice. It is dark and the air is full of frost tonight but it dont seem very cold. Could see a faint streak of the Northern lights today. Have seen them two or three times lately but they dont amount to much they are not very bright. The Eskimo that won their race got a large hunting knife also, they are good ones two, Marvin won the race of the men, McMillan second. I thought I wouldnt run I was afraid I might win and disappoint others (yer know). There was a card attached to my package which I will put in the book. A merry Christmas to Chief Wardwell from Mrs. Peary.

1908 122525b12/25/1908 George Wardwell

A dark Christmas morn

12-25-1908 : Morning
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A dark Christmas morn, overcast but very warm, then down to 21-. Have made out the programme for the day. “Christmas Day” 2 o’clock - 50 yard dash on the ice: First heat Eskimo children, 2nd heat Eskimo women, 3rd heat Eskimo men, 4th heat “Kabloonahs”, Tug of War, Men aft vs. Men for’ard 3 o’clock - Distributing of food to Inuits 4 o’clock - Dinner 5 o’clock - Throwing dice for prizes 8 o’clock - In forecastle forward: Finger pulling, Back pulling, Head pulling, Boxing, Grand concert on Graphaphone by Steward Percy, Flash light pictures by Prof. George Borup Cheers, Goodnight The Capt. and Borup helped me with the course. When I came out of tidal igloo at 2 o’clock every thing was already. The course looked fine lighted up with about fifteen lanterns. All were enthusiastic. The races were hotly contested, especially the last heat of the “Koonah” race which was composed mostly of women with babies in the hood. The dash for Esquimaux men was won by Siglu, for Kabloonah’s by Marvin, for women by Te-cu-mah, for boys by Panik-pah’s boy “Jimmie”. In the tug of war the men for’ard won by about a foot. In the dice throwing contest the winners were Mr. Gushue, Paddy Skeins, In-u-pee, [undecipherable] and We-shark-ob-see. Commander here kindly presented me with a fine knife for my efforts in working up the programme. Our mess room was decorated with the now famous and historical flags of former expeditions. George took two flashlights of us seated. A fine dinner, musk ox, plum pudding, candy decorated cake. We each received candy and nuts from Mrs. Peary. Our first Christmas in the Arctic has been a most enjoyable one – plenty of everything – of good feeling and of good cheer far more important than an abundance of good food. We are all happy. With us the “dread arctic night” does not exist. The days are all too short for what we would like to do. With me the sun has not been missed even. He will be welcome when he comes but he is not essential to our happiness or thus far to our good health. I think we are, excepting the Doctor, in better condition than we were when we left New York – fatter, healthier, and as happy as one can be, all eagerly looking forward to the more serious work of the polar ice.

1908 12252512/25/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Still Digging

12-24-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Forty below this morning and quite a breeze from the No. West and it feels pretty cold. Could hear the ice running outside today. The boys are still digging the ice away. It is pretty thick they have dug down six feet in some places and havnt struck water.

1908 12242412/24/1908 George Wardwell

More continuous work

12-23-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Modelled [sic] buck deer head in my snow entrance. Sent party of Eks out to reconnoiter for water, our supply from the river having failed Saturday. They found a depth of 13’ in the small lake beyond the river. This is likely to last us through the year. The water too appears to be softer than the river water. More continuous work about the ship.

1908 12232312/23/1908 Robert E. Peary

Listed over quite a lot

12-22-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Forty four below this morning and has been about the same all day. Clear and lots of stars. The sun starts back today, so they gave the Eskimos an extra feed today so they could celebrate it. The boys have been cutting the ice away from the outside of the ship today, are leaving a few blocks of ice against the side to hold her and as soon as they get the rest done are to blow that out and try to get her righted up. She is listed over quite a lot now.

1908 12222212/22/1908 George Wardwell

Found my old friends

12-21-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Have been catching dogs for the Commander today. Hunted for and found my old friends “Left-over”, “Leslie”, “Teddy”, “Wolf” and the Black bitch. They all seemed glad to see me and jumped upon my breast. Today is the “Winter-Solstice”, the day when the sun reaches its most southern declination. A very goof twilight showing that the light never wholly deserts us in this section.

1908 12212112/21/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

A musical evening

12-20-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A musical evening. Charlie’s graphaphone going for all it was worth and the male quintette trying over some old familiar songs in the mess room and Commander switching between the two.

1908 12202012/20/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

5 hare

12-19-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

MacMillan’s return brings in all my parties. During this moon the country has been reconnoitered from C. Union + L. Hazen to C. Columbia with the only result of 5 hare. I have got to cut down my dogs still farther.

1908 12191912/19/1908 Robert E. Peary

Bottles, pans and buckets

12-18-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

George and I endeavor to clean up our room which is a sight. I can hardly get into it as it is used for a dark room and is full of all kinds of bottles, pans and buckets. I read a little and try not to eat.

1908 12181812/18/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

All well

12-17-1908 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Decent weather, calm + not very cold. Continue work on flash lights of deer. MacMillan+ his outfit came in at 7.- P.M. All well. He obtained 28 days of tidal obs. had temps. of -47°. Secured no game though saw tracks M.O. in Parr B.

1908 12171712/17/1908 Robert E. Peary

Quite a little breeze today

12-16-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty five below this morning, and the air has been full of frost all day, and very dark, we only had the moon a little while today, then it went in behind the hill and before it got around it was too low to shine here. Quite a little breeze today so it seemed pretty cold.

1908 12161612/16/1908 George Wardwell

Two good sized igloos

12-15-1908 : Morning
Donald B. MacMillan
Porter Bay, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We left Cape Colan this afternoon at quarter of three after fitting ourselves out with biscuit and pemmican from the cache of four years ago. The trail across the Inlet is very easily seen at times and at times it is lost on the smooth ice over which we travel at a very rapid rate making Sail Harbor in 3 hours and 25 minutes. We find there plenty of pemmican, oil and biscuit left by Matt and Borup, also two good sized igloos. Stay a while here for lunch and push on for Porter Bay which we reach at 1.30 Wednesday A.M.

1908 12151512/15/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Arcturus is their leading star

12-14-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Colan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A cold clear morning. What is left of the moon is behind Cape Aldrich. We may get some of it this afternoon. Try to get as much of our gauge as possible in an attempt to twist it from the boxes on the bottom but only succeed in getting the four foot length. The dogs start out with a rush over the rough ice undulating from the shore for quite a distance. In a short time it becomes much smoother. A heavy mist hangs down over the ice hiding the hills and light of the moon. The Inuits watch the stars continually to guide them aright. Arcturus is their leading star. They determine the length of their march by distance of its revolution. In nearly every snow igloo a small peep hole is cut over the door to look for this star as it swings around in the heavens. We left Cape Aldrich at about 12 o’clock and reach the snow igloo (ig-lee-ee-ah) at Cape Colan after marching 12 hours and a quarter, at 12.15 A.M. Tuesday. Another igloo is immediately put up for Eging-wah, Inu-ghito and their wives.

1908 12141412/14/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Dog feeding day

12-13-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A fine morning, clear + calm, temp. nearly up to 0°. About 10.- A.M. heavy squall from the S- with drifting snow lasting some five hours, temp. rising to -5°. Later clear + calm again. Dog feeding day. Borup + 5 Esks. came in just in time for 4.- P.M. dinner. He has had good weather + good going, + moved everything from Sail Harbor to C. Colan. Plenty of water this evening at C. Rawson.

1908 12131312/13/1908 Robert E. Peary

Game is pretty scarce

12-12-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty three below this morning, and the air is full of frost. Marvin and his man got in at 7.15 P.M. He said the dogs ran away just this side of Cape Rawson. They stopped to take a dog out of a fox trap that followed them yesterday, they had to take the lashing off the sledge to put around the dogs neck to hold him off so he wouldnt bite the one that took him out of the trap. The two Eskimos that he sent off got in about two hours behind him they said they couldn’t get around Cape Union The water makes right in to the shore and the Cape is almost perpendictular [sic]. The Dr. and his men got in this morning at four oclock. They didn’t see anything but a few old hare, fox and wolf tracks. He said it was pretty cold traveling around and sleeping in a snow Igloo. Game is pretty scarce up here this time.

1908 12121212/12/1908 George Wardwell

A wonderful improvement

12-11-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Modelled [sic] + froze 2 doe + 3 fawn heads in the snow entrance to my rear door. Charlie had the women scrub walls + floor of the starboard messroom + passage. A wonderful improvement. Marvin returned about 6.-P.M. reporting much open water. Ahlettahh + Kyutah came in a few hours later reporting impossible to pass C. Union, open water and no ice foot at all.

1908 12111112/11/1908 Robert E. Peary

A foot and a half of water

12-10-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty seven below again this morning at seven. I went up to look for the place we got water when we were here before. The place they are getting now is nearly dried up. We dug 4 places before we found it, the snow was about five feet deep. I sounded with a lance, struck ice every time but in cutting through the ice would strike ground. At last we found about a foot and a half of water after going down through five feet of snow and after three feet of ice. I think the boys with one Eskimo went up tonight to build a snow Igloo over it. There is only one Eskimo here now that can work and he has his toe hurt, one sick one. Marvin went down to Lincoln bay today with three Eskimos on a hunting trip. He and one of them are coming back tomorrow after he gets the other two started off inland on a trip of eight or ten days.

1908 12101012/10/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Heard the cracking of whips

12-09-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

About a quarter of five today In-ah-waho heard the cracking of whips and called to Eging-wah that kow-a-tiks were coming. Judging by the sound they were headed toward the point! So Eging-wah and In-u-ghito hitched up their dog teams and went to meet them. They proved to be Pu-ad-loon-ah and Awah-ting-wa sent by the Commander to help us about getting home. They have letters from Commander and George who is at Sail Harbor transporting supplies to Cape Colan. As there are five nights yet before we start for home I have them build a snow igloo close to ours. George will leave for home on the 13th one day before we do. Matt, Panik-pah and Ooblooyah are in Clements Markham Inlet after musk oxen, the Doctor and two Inuits are at the head of Black Cliffs Bay hunting, the Capt. doing the same at Lake Hazen.

1908 12090912/09/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Charley brought me breakfast

12-08-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Charley brought my breakfast in the room to me and I sat up in bed long enough to eat it. Ham and eggs, coffee + bread + butter. I the took another nap until nearly dinner time. When I turned out I learned the Com. wanted to see me so I went in and had a pleasant talk with him. If we are unable to get across the channel to Cape Bryant on the next moon, we are to go to Fort Conger for the month + then perhaps go to Cape Bryant for a week or so. I would rather go to Bryant now and Conger next summer. Ongudloog smashed three of his toes so I had to dress them. Two Eskimos are going to Lincoln Bay day after tomorrow so I am going down in order to get a better view of the channel pack. Akatingwah went ashore this evening full of expectancy and occupied a snow igloo for several hours. Have let Wiseman and Joyce take the watches until I return the last of the week. Spent an hour or two on reading up about Fort Conger, in case I have to go there this next moon, am still writing after the midnight hour.

1908 12080812/08/1908 Ross Marvin

Plenty of water visible

12-07-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Hazy in forenoon but calm, afternoon + evening perfect; brilliant moonlight, no wind, temp. mild (-22°). Plenty of water visible (pools + leads) E. + N.E. Moon’s “appulse” visible between 6 – 7 P.M. Rear wall of after house walled up with snow today. The field parties are having fine weather. Continue work on the deerskins. Barom. remains low + steady. Marvin down to C. Rawson this evening with [undecipherable Inuit name] to reconnoiter the Channel ice. Full moon early this morning.

1908 12070712/07/1908 Robert E. Peary

We have all been sliding

12-06-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Still cloudy and warm. About 10 o’clock the moon was slightly visible through the clouds. Light streak along the horizon in the East. Light breeze from North West (true), The boys went down into Parr Bay after musk oxen; searched the valleys and hills thoroughly but saw no signs. Tonight we have all been sliding in the hill back of the igloo on the bottoms of our kamiks coming down like a shot. Had some fine views of moon through telescope. Tidal igloo all afloat again tonight. Was obliged to crawl in through hole in side to get observations. Thermometer tonight at 36 below, but in our games in front and back of igloo we did not experience the least discomfort.

1908 12060612/06/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Fancy squeaking

12-05-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty two below this morning and not much wind. It has been pretty fair day but dark, the moon didnt rise until past two this afternoon and then it was cloudy so we couldnt see it until about seven tonight. The travelers wont have it very good if it keeps on the way it has since the moon came, although it seems very fine tonight. The ice was doing some fancy squeeking [sic] from four until about ten oclock this morning, it sounded as if it was pretty close by. The tide has a rise and fall of about two feet now.

1908 12050512/05/1908 George Wardwell

Removing ice from my room

12-04-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Blew fresh all night + this morning, moderating in afternoon. Temp. in -20’s. Moon rose about noon. An early dinner again + immediately after Borup with 7 Esks, 7 sledges, + 43 dogs got away for C Colan + Columbia. Dr. Goodsell started at same time with 3 Esks, 2 sledges + 12 dogs, to scour the region from head of Black Cliffs Bay to James Ross Bay. Am very glad to find the dogs all apparently in good condition + eager to travel. Yesterday + today puts 18 men + 78 dogs in the field for 10-15 days. Counting the C. Columbia party 22 men, 2 women + 84 dogs. After the parties got away had all the last lot of deer skins (21) brought in my room + the starboard mess room to thaw out. Commenced overhauling + removing ice from my room.

1908 12040412/04/1908 Robert E. Peary

Moon rose earlier

12-03-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Hazy + wind fresher. Moon rose earlier than yesterday. Immediately after dinner which I had a half hour earlier (3.30) Captain Bartlett with Ootah, Oo-ke-yah, 2 sledges + 12 dogs got away to scour the region between here + L. Hazen; + Henson with Panikpah, Oo-bloo-yah, 2 sledges + 12 dogs for away at the same time for Clements Markham Inlet.

1908 12030312/03/1908 Robert E. Peary

Light up this little town

12-02-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Busy during my first watch taking 10 minute observations. The tide fooled me compelling me to work continuously for 5 ½ hours. Jack reported the moon as rising over the eastern hills about five o’clock. He is very late coming to work; looks very much dissipated but not full as far as I can determine. We will excuse his tardiness if he will get right down to business and light up this little town of ours. Eging-wah has made me a small kayack today with all the fixings. In-u-gheeto has been making a pee-u-tee out of musk ox horn boring it out with a native drill, a rather vigorous contrivance.

1908 12020212/02/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

The kids make so much noise

12-01-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thirty two below this morning, and the air was full of frost, the rigging is all covered with it. Borup has just been out and taken a flashlight picture of some of the Natives that are going out in a day or two. Panikpah one of the Eskimo’s has built a snow Igloo onshore to sleep in nights, he says the kids make so much noise in the forecastle he cant sleep there. I think they gave the last of the fish to the dogs today. They mix it with whale meat. I just saw it on the next page where I had said it before. The boys get water yet, but they say it is getting low it is frozen nearly to the bottom of the spring.

1908 12010112/01/1908 George Wardwell

Eager + interested

11-30-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Clear + calm. Temp. down to -39°. Ice roaring + grinding just outside of us nearly all day. Told Captain, Henson, Dr. + Borup + the Esks, of their coming trips as soon as moon returns the latter part of this week, + as a result everyone is eager + interested tonight. Had starboard side of after house protected with snow blocks today. Henson finished another 3” sledge today. This gives 3 – 3”, + 3 – 2” ones.

1908 11303011/30/1908 Robert E. Peary

Acting like the devil!

11-29-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

It began to blow at about 2 o’clock this morning from northeast. Barometer falling steadily and thermometer at 21-. Continued to blow and drift until about 11 A.M. when wind dropped and sky cleared up. Jack is a hard man to get out. I have to call him time and time again. One morning he came up like a shot so quickly, in fact, that he startled me. I learned the reason later. He was dreaming he was in New York at the pier lying in his bunk. Cody opened the forecastle door and asked him to go for a drink to McKinley’s bar room. I was Cody. Our stove has been acting like the devil belching forth clouds of smoke under the least provocation. When the three men get to smoking and the stove, too, the stove puts them all in the shade and us under the musk ox skins. We judge when to emerge by the cessation of coughing, wheezing, and sulphurous expressions from Jack imitated in broken English by the Inuits. Jack went out yesterday and knocked the devil (soot) out of the pipe. Today it is working better. Our tidal igloo is cracked open from top to bottom, can see the stars right out through it.

1908 11292911/29/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Not much doing today

11-28-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty seven below this morning at seven oclock. The wind is blowing yet, and could hear the ice running, outside last night and this morning too, it makes a funny noise. Sounds like a train rushing along and squeaking around a curve. Not much doing today. The Mate made a Door for the snow entrance today and I suppose one of the Eskimo’s will fit it in tomorrow.

1908 11282811/28/1908 George Wardwell

Graphaphone forward last night

11-27-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty one below last night. The wind still blows and the air is full of frost so it seems as cold as ever. We could hear the ice running last night and it was making quite a noise, one would think it was coming right on top of the ship by the sound. The boys had the Graphaphone forward last night, and played all the peices [sic] through. The Mate and his men took some more of the fish out of the water today to feed the dogs, they mix it with the whale meat.

1908 11272711/27/1908 George Wardwell

Thanksgiving in Grant Land

11-26-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty eight below this morning, quite dark but the sky is full of stars as many as one would see on a starry night at home, they look cold though and twinkle too. We had mince pie, rice soup, macarronie [sic] & cheese and canned hash today for dinner. I was just out on deck and could hear the ice grinding and squeeking [sic] outside, off the Cape, it sounds as though it was right alongside. The Eskimos had a musk ox dinner.

1908 11262611/26/1908 George Wardwell

Cranberry and Musk Ox Pie

11-26-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thanksgiving Day and one long to be remembered. I lay in bed and think of the many good dinners I have had and where I have spent some very pleasant Thanksgiving days but this one is unique in many ways: first as to location – the most northern point of land in North America; 2nd the time – at midnight of the great arctic night; 3rd living in a snow house at the base of a 700 foot cliff on the edge of the polar sea with four Eskimos – two men and two women. I celebrate the day by first having a good wash – some of us wash about once a week and some not at all. Jack and I sing a few old familiar songs –not– familiar to us. We must have something extra for dinner –what– shall it be. I have one jar of cranberries which might possibly be made into a pie, so here goes. If anyone cares for a good recipe here it is. Grease plates well with butter. Crush up biscuit in your hands into as fine a dust as possible until your hand aches with pain. Mix with medicated musk ox salve from medicine chest – use all of it for crackers are very dry. To be positive of good results, that is to have good flaky crust, put in three large tablespoons of butter in addition to all the salve. Cover plates with thick layer and spread on cranberries. Put on oil stove and bake quickly before the fat has a chance to bubble up through the top. If grease runs out on top of your oil stove creating a dense smoke in your igloo perhaps it would be well to remove the pie and place in open air at a temperature of 40-. This is simply another way of hardening the crust if heat fails to do it. Serve cold and eat at once providing each guest with a hammer or a knife according to condition of teeth. The musk ox salve makes an especially appropriate shortening for such a day giving to the crust a peculiar odor as well as taste like that of turkey stuffing, possibly the stuffing made of ground chestnuts of which I have never tasted. If the shortening had been lengthening we would all have been better pleased with results. P.S. Don’t ask the Doctor the recipe for the salve. After dinner cigars were passed around, a group flashlight picture was taken and then to our musk ox sleeping bags and the day was over.

1908 112626b11/26/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Variable temperatures today

11-25-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

So cold in igloo last night that I frosted both my heels. Have made a box for my feet and the oil stove and will endeavor to keep warm. Have had some variable temperatures today, thermometer rising 18° in an hour at another time dropping 12°. Boys have been to old camp today for boxes and biscuit. Wood is nearly gone. We have plenty of oil but am afraid our wicks will not last for the trip home.

1908 11252511/25/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Water to the N.E.

11-24-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Still clear! Fresh northwest wind all day. Last night for a while, a gale. Water to the N.E. Had ships men ripping up the walrus meat forward so I can see how much there is. Am very glad to find that there is much more than I had feared. Borup still interesting himself + the party with his flashlight pictures. Matt completed a 3” broad runner sledge, Wt. 95# [lbs.].

1908 11242411/24/1908 Robert E. Peary

Great sport!

11-23-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Began ten minute observations as soon as I was called and continued them for about three hours both morning and afternoon. To do this and get breakfast at the same time required some fast work. With the thermometer at -40 below zero this was great sport! Got some interesting results showing that the tide fluctuates back and forth according to the cracking of the ice. Could not get Jack out at 2 o’clock so ran my watch to four getting supper for him. To save wood will let fire go out tonight and burn one side of oil stove.

1908 11232311/23/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Another crack in the igloo

11-22-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Had a good night’s rest + turned out at breakfast time. The Com. was not out at breakfast + we had a lively conversation mostly the Captain + Doctor. Went on watch right after breakfast and finished my ten minute readings at noon. I am trying to do a little writing now + Kudlooktoo stands here watching me. Another crack in the igloo while Wiseman was on watch during the night. He came out at 10 oclock + I had a little talk with him out in the igloo, telling him he had a chance to help a great deal during the rest of the stay here. The Captain started a fire in his room but was smoked out so that he had to put it out with water. Another fine clear day, very little wind + a little warmer than yesterday. Considerable glow in the southern sky at noon but very little light from it. I have got to take a brace in a few days and get a little more ambition but I will be all right again when it does come.

1908 11222211/22/1908 Ross Marvin

Saw the devil

11-21-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty three below this morning at 7. oclock. It went down to 31 below in the night, if one can call it night for it is just about as dark in the day as the night. Some of the Eskimos said they saw the devil walking around the ship tonight. They are always seeing something, The other night they saw him coming from up the coast about a half mile from the ship. They took some of the fish out of the water today and gave it to the dogs with the meat. There is a little more rise and fall to the tide now as it is close to the new moon so the ship is listed over a little more tonight.

1908 11212111/21/1908 George Wardwell

Where we do not want it

11-20-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Had a fire last night in the igloo – where we did not want it. The lining caught fire around the stove pipe. Quite a large hole was melted in the roof, so when I was called at 7.30 I found it very cold. I have given up cooking on our big stove, find the oil stoves much better. Eging-wah has made s wooden collar for our pipe. Gave the Inuits a lunch tonight which makes them happy. Fifteen minute observations all through my watch.

1908 11202011/20/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

I cut the Captain's hair

11-19-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

This day began at 5.30 when I turned out to start observations at 6 A.M. off again at breakfast time. Finished reading Thomas Dixon Jr.’s “The One Woman.” The time on watch passes quicker with something to read. The weather has been clear and cold but with a little offshore breeze which makes it raw out of doors. Finished my watch from 12 to 3 and then I cut the Captain’s hair before dinner. The Commander is not quite as jovial at the table as he was last time, probably on account of the dogs and their food. After dinner I laid down for a nap and woke about 8 P.M. I am now out again and trying to do a little writing. I am not keeping up my diary as closely as I did last time. Probably because so many of the little things come now as a matter of fact, which were real novelties last time. Spent most of my afternoon in remarking the tide guage [sic] as the pencil marks will only stand for a few days. Have already worked out several improvements for the next one I make to take to Cape Bryant. I do not expect to go before the first of the year. A week from today is Thanksgiving Day.

1908 11191911/19/1908 Ross Marvin

Borup broke the focusing plate

11-18-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty six below this morning, and twenty nine below now at 6 P.M. with quite a breeze blowing. It seems a little colder than it did twenty two years ago today to me, but I dont suppose it is any colder there. How fast the time has gone. It doesnt seem as though it has been so long. There is very little left of the moon now so it has been quite dark today. The days and nights are about the same now. Seven natives came in last night four from the place where Marvins party killed the Deer, with the skins and what meat there was left. The other three came from up where McMillan is taking tidal observations, he wrote that it had been very windy and the thermometer had been to 35º below zero. The Natives said it was fine traveling now the snow was so hard one can go it anywhere. Borup broke the focusing plate of ground glass to his camera tonight so I had to help him make another one. I cut it and helped him grind it with emery cloth so that it does first rate he says. He has just been out and taken a couple of pictures and is developing the plates now to see how they came out. They finished the snow Igloo over the well today by putting up a wooden door.

1908 11181811/18/1908 George Wardwell

324 rations

11-17-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Have established 6 hour watches. Turned in at 12.40 and had a very comfortable night, called at 6.30. Found sky overcast and snowing a little. Started boys cutting blocks for our tidal igloo. Jack and I packed away our grub in “tossut”. We have: 22 cans Tomatoes 17 Corn 17 Brown Bread 29 Beans 16 Salmon 21 Milk 27 Hash We shall need 324 rations. Food served as follows to each person: 1/3 can Tomatoes 1/3 Brown Bread 1/3 Beans 1/2 Corn 1/2 Salmon 1/2 Hash This makes exactly 324. Will go home on pemmican if we do not get musk ox on the next moon. Have sent the Inuits twice back into the hills hunting but with no success. There seems to be plenty of tracks. Possibly they heard the barking of our dogs and have gone “tark-pu-er-nee”. The girls have been busy putting up lining, running cords out through the sides of igloo and fastening to a stick, both inside and out. Our stove is up and ready for business. Jack rubbed his hands together and said we would have a dam good fire. To prove his statement he cramed [sic] the stove full of wood and applied the torch. It began to smoke when he reached for the water and soon put every stove to shame that I ever saw! Jack stammered “every new one smokes” and that is the last complete sentence. The ejaculations, exclamations, words of excess disgust – and swearing were very pronounced. I crawled down beneath the bed clothes, the women crawled into the back of the igloo, and buried their faces in the musk ox skins. Eging-wah ran out and knocked a hole in the roof.

1908 11171711/17/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Our igloo

11-16-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Am pretty tired this morning. By estimate Jack and I had dug 3 ¼ tons of ice. Eging-wah and In-u-ghito had built our big igloo. Packed up everything but our tupik and all left for our new home, Jack going on ahead to take 11 o’clock observations. Our igloo is 11 feet 12 inches one way by 12 feet the other. Bed platform 7 feet 5 inches at widest part. Height from tip of roof to bed platform 6 feet 8 inches; from platform to floor 1 foot 6 in. Total height 8 feet 2 in. Plenty large enough, perhaps too large to heat well. Placed sides of boxes under our bed, also snow shoes and sheep skins to keep ourselves away from the snow. Lighted up oil stoves so as to melt the inside; this freezing soon became a hard, glazed surface preparatory to putting up our fly for a lining. The thermometer before me broke it ran up to 42+. Took flashlight of interior.

1908 11161611/16/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Ground to pieces

11-15-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Only 11 below this morning but there was quite a breeze and it seemed very cold. Borup left his two camera tripods out on that large berg where he had them for taking moonlight pictures, and he was out there last night looking for them but couldnt find them, he said there was very little of that large berg left, it was all ground to peices [sic], and carried away. And a heavy wall of ice all the way out there. There is only one foot and eight tenths between high and low water mark so far. If we had as much rise and fall here as at home it would tear things to peices. The Coona that was parbloctoe in the afternoon was parbloctoe again at night and tore her seal skin coat in to [sic], and one side of her trunks. The snow drifted a little today but not much.

1908 11151511/15/1908 George Wardwell

Tea, sugar and biscuits

11-14-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

I came on watch at 12 this morning. Slightly warmer, 25 – but wind about the same. Along toward night the temp. stood at 12 –, the barometer is at 28.90 very low, but the clouds are breaking away and wind going down. At four o’clock conditions were so favorable that I call boys from their visit to snow igloo and send tem up into Parr Bay for soundings, telling them they must get water before they come back. Ooblooyah, Pu-ad-loonah, and Sig-loo leave for Roosevelt about midnight. Fitted them out with tea, sugar, and biscuits to Sail Harbor.

1908 11141411/14/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

"Good old times"

11-13-1908 : Morning
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Last night was something like the “good old times” of the last Expedition. The wind increases during evening, + about 11.30 the ship began to complain. Soon after midnight I dressed + went out. Wind very fresh from the N. (true) tide flood, + the ice grinding ominously past the point of the Cape. The ice outside of us was humming + groaning with the pressure which steadily increased. In a little while the ice broke + began to rafter just beyond edge of ice foot. A few minutes later the whole ice broke with a roar into a tumbling chaos of ice blocks some upheaving, some going under, + a big rafter forward at the ice foot edge increasing in size + advancing upon us. The grounded piece off our starboard beam was forced in + driven against the big block under our starboard quarter but without disturbing it. The pressure + the motion continued in pushes for something less than an hour, the rafter forcing in until it just reached our side + the ice against the R – from amidships to the stern on the starboard side was broken up. I had all hands called, + all fires extinguished except that in the galley. Some of the Eskimos went ashore. The R – itself did not move. With the turn of the tide about 1.30 the water waned. The disturbance was undoubtedly caused by a big floe coming past the Cape on the flood + before the wind, + being brought up by the grounded 150’ floe. The temp. during this time was -25° but it did not seem so very cold. Marvin’s tide igloo was split in two + some of the snow blocks fell, but he continued his observations + as soon as matters were quiet I sent Eskimos out to repair the damages. There were also oscillations in the water level.

1908 11131311/13/1908 Robert E. Peary

A parhelion about the moon

11-12-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty below this morning and a good breeze blowing all day so it seems pretty cold. A little frost falling. Just enough to make a parehillion [parhelion] about the moon. 4 moon’s tonight, besides the original. And 8 last night. Borup arrived about 8 last night, he said he couldnt get around Cape Union, the water made right into the shore and it is almost a perpendictler [sic] cliff there. The Eskimo that was with him upset with the sledge this side of there, and Borup said he turned over as many as 3 times down the side of Cape Rawson. The Barometer has been up to 30.70. and only down to 29.30 so far this year and is about 29.60 now. We didnt have any wind to amount to anything when it was down to 29.30. Marvin has his Igloo ready and began taking tidal observations this morning at 7. He and Borup are watch and watch so as to keep it the 24 hours without intermission. The ice has been running outside all day.

1908 11121211/12/1908 George Wardwell

8 false moons

11-11-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Clear + calm. Temp. in -20’s. Borup + Karko down to Black Cape on the chance of a bear. Considerable open water off Rawson. Fed dogs on salt fish that has been soaking in ice foot for several days. This evening moulding + freezing the white fox into a life like position. A brilliant paraselene this evening (8 false moons).

1908 11111111/11/1908 Robert E. Peary

My 34th Birthday

11-10-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Clements Markham Inlet, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

I shall remember my 34th birthday for a long time to come – sledging from the ice of James Ross Bay to Cape Colan. Over the hills to Sail Harbor was pretty tough going, deep snow and at times none at all. Left here a case of oil as instructed by Commander. Found here 2 musk ox skins, 2 ½ cases of biscuit instead of three. The moonlight was so brilliant in Clements Markham Inlet that I could not believe that we were headed toward Cape Colan 12 miles away but thought for a long time the Inuits were sledging toward Point Hamilton. When about ¾ ways across were obliged to turn south into the inlet to avoid new ice. Soon finding it strong we struck out to the edge of it and found excellent going. Camped under the lea of a large mound of ice.

1908 11101011/10/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Spring tides

11-09-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Still thick, calm + warm (just above 0°). Spring tides running now + they have flooded the big igloo just completed yesterday by Marvin over his tide gauge hole. Am afraid it may collapse. Six more dogs condemned + expended today. The 2” broad runner sledge completed today. Wt. 79 lbs., length 12’, width 26”. Henson has been 10 days on this with a man to help him, + the cross bars made + shoes drilled.

1908 11090911/09/1908 Robert E. Peary

Very disagreeable

11-08-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Awoke to find it very dark, sky overcast and looking very much like snow. A large circle around the moon last night. Wee-shark-obsee and Koolah-tingah left during the night for Roosevelt. We start out at 10’ o’clock following the trail by light-up lantern. The ice foot seems to be overflowed in many places. Covered with a thin layer of snow, it does not reveal its character until we are into it, our snow shoes covered with slush, and sledges stuck fast. It has been a very disagreeable afternoon, a cold wind and driving snow in our faces for miles. Time and time again we wandered from the trail partly owing to the fact that it was badly drifted and partly because of the strong wind nearly extinguishing the lantern. Egingwah, probably one of the most expert in trail finding, was obliged to take the lantern and go on ahead, I taking his team. As the dogs sighted the Porter Bay cache they made a rush through the driving snow, one team taking me off my feet. I fell back on the traces with snow shoes up in air, grabbed the prongs of the sledge to prevent myself from going under water and rode in in grand style with dogs a yelping and driver yelling “arre-tik”. “Hudson” caught his foot in tidal crack, so was obliged to slip off his harness and leave him behind. Looking back through the snow I could see him limping painfully along doing his best to keep up us in sight. Thought that I had probably seen the last of him but in about an hour I felt a nose in my hand and there he was on three legs. In two days he was all right again and harnessed in to his team.

1908 11080811/08/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Cape Columbia tide party

11-07-1908 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A fine clear day. Temp. in the -20’s. MacMillan off immediately after breakfast with Jack Barnes, sailor, Egingwah + Inughito + their wives forming his own C. Columbia tide party; Pooadloonah, Ooblooyah + Sigloo, his supporting party; + Weeshahupsi + Kooloolingwah who go as far as C. Richardson to bring back M.O. skins from there. Tell Ootah today that he + 3 other men are to go tomorrow to bring in the deerskins + meat left by Marvin + Henson.

1908 11070711/07/1908 Robert E. Peary

A nice moon tonight

11-06-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

14º below last night, clear and cold today, a nice moon tonight almost full. The Eskimos told me they killed 6 or 8 dogs to eat while they were out with the Capt. They said they wanted some fresh meat before they went down to where the Com. killed the musk oxen. 4 of the boys were out this evening awhile on snowshoes they said it was fine going now. A few dogs have died lately and they have them piled up onshore to feed to the rest of the dogs when the whale meat is gone.

1908 11060611/06/1908 George Wardwell

Built a cairn

11-05-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty two below this morning, and calm and cold all day, clear overhead but frosty around the horizon. The Capt. with his men 14 I think came in tonight from hauling the provisions up to Cape Columbia. He said the snow was very deep and they had a gale of wind most every day. They went up to Clements Markham Inlet, and got all the meat the Com. left there from the 15 musk oxen he shot. McMillan was down to Cape Rawson today he said he built a cairn almost as large as the one the English built here. The Com. said the first thing they saw when we came around Cape Rawson was the cairn I built when we were here before. He didnt see it when he came back from the western trip before for he was onshore and it sets back so it can only be seen from the water and he didnt know what it was. I havent been up to mine yet, McMillan said he was going up and get our paper that the Second and I left our names on and put in a copy with his on it and in the spring, if I get a chance I will put in another one with the date of this trip.

1908 11050511/05/1908 George Wardwell

A thermos bottle of hot coffee

11-04-1908 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Temp. this morning down to -12°. Thick + a little snow falling. Blowing fresh from N.W. the early part of the night. This wind seems to have completed the hardening of the snow; + the snowshoeing is much better, is in fact very good. Borup, a sailor + an Eskimo went out on the trail again today nearly to Belknap + left a thermos bottle of hot coffee + one of gin for the Captain’s party.

1908 11040411/04/1908 Robert E. Peary

No wind

11-03-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Two below this morning, and no wind. Borup one sailor and one Eskimo went up the trail today were gone about five hours, didnt find it drifted any. But I expect they will tomorrow, as the wind is breezing up tonight. I was down to the little pond where they get water, about a mile from here, on my snowshoes. Marvin is having a hole cut and an Igloo built over it so as to take measurements of the tides. The Eskimos are building a snow wall around the ships house, on skylight etc.

1908 11030311/03/1908 George Wardwell

Snowing all night

11-02-1908 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Snowing all night, + blowing hard from N.W. until early morning. Today calm, thick + warmer (0°). Borup, Ooblooyah, + a ship’s man went out immediately after breakfast to break a trail to Bumb Bell Pt. for the Captain’s party. Eskimos doing some snow work about ship. Working on outfit for MacMillan’s party.

1908 11020211/02/1908 Robert E. Peary

A great dinner today

11-01-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

My bed must be too good. Could not sleep so got up at 5-30 and read until breakfast time. Feel like a trained athlete this morning, every joint as loose and flexible as a child’s. Walked up the road with Borup and Weisman to break trail for Captain and his party. Found it completely buried and quite soft. A great dinner today – tookto coming.

1908 11010111/01/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

It is all night now

10-31-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A very cold day. 26º below this morning and the air still full of frost or snow. It was 21º below last night at 9 oclock, it is all night now only we eat in what we call the daytime, and work a little also. The Second and I have been making small cookers for the small kerosene stoves, and the stoves will fit inside of them for camp use, and it makes them compact. McMillan arrived with his two natives at 1. P.M. from Clements Markham Inlet where he had been surveying. They got 5 Musk oxen the first night they got there but the snow came that night and they didnt get a chance to go again, had all they could do to finish their work, he said the snow was very deep. The Capt. left a note at one of the Igloos, that they were not getting the provisions along as fast as he thought he would do it in 16 days but it is 19 tonight, and Mc. didnt think he would be in for 3 or 4 days more, just enough wind to cover the trail, and not enough to bank the snow down hard enough to hold one up on snowshoes.

1908 10313110/31/1908 George Wardwell

I decide to make camp

10-30-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Richardson, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Otah and Inugeeto go with us part way today. At the edge of the ice they encamp. Tomorrow they will range the hills for deer. Sledging along the ice foot is fairly good today as far as Cape Richardson. We reached here at 11-30. Oblooyah was obliged to reload his sledge, the rough ice had disarranged his whole load. When crossing Black Cliffs Bay I hear the rattle of a pemmican tin not far from land. Egingwah shouts “Inuits”. Sure enough too [sic] sledges are coming. Covered with snow and ice I fail to recognize the faces even after talking with them for some time. They prove to be Pooadloonah, another brother of Egingwah, and Siglu. Their tupik is back at Cape Belknap to which they will return tonight. We pick up their trail and they ours thus making it easier for both of us. Just after dark we reach their camping ground. Assured by the boys that we can easily make the ship from here tomorrow I decide to make camp. During the evening Siglu and Pooadloonah reached camp and came over for a chat and to learn a game or two of cards. Their dogs are in poor shape, still suffering from the effects of their Grant Land trip where a number died of starvation. One of Siglu’s died during the night.

1908 10303010/30/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Over a ton of it

10-29-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Thick with silting snow. Temp. a little lower (-11°). Fresh n-ly breeze at times during night. Sent Pooadloonah + Sigloo to C. Richardson to break the trail + move some of the pemmican from Belknap to Richardson. Trying flash lights of bear + deer. Have also modelled [sic] a deer head + shoulders, to go with a wolf if we get one. The last of the whale meat was cut up + brought on board today. There is a little over a ton of it. A little blaze this morning about the galley smoke pipe.

1908 10292910/29/1908 Robert E. Peary

A happy crowd!

10-28-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Porter Bay, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The days are rapidly becoming shorter and darker so we start out before light. The going is something terrible, not a hard patch of snow during the day, and to make matters worse now and then we find water under the snow, the slush instantly freezes to our snow shoes and our feet are like lead. But we are doing our best to get to Porter Bay. As we approached the old camping spot I am surprised to see two black objects rush up on the hill. At first I think they must be musk-ox but Oblooyah instantly recognizes them for Inuits which later prove to be his brother Inugeeto and also the brother of Egingwah. They are here with a load of whale meat for the Captain’s party, also to hunt tookto and to break trail. The boys are very glad to get the news from the ship and to learn the results of the two hunting parties lately returned from Lake Hazen region. They inform us that Marvin’s party got 19 deer, Matt’s 8, but no musk ox much to Commander’s surprise. It has taken them three days from ship which means hard sledging for us. After supper they come in and play cards all the evening and smoke cigar – a happy crowd!

1908 10282810/28/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Fresh offshore breeze

10-27-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The first clear day for a long time, but the character of the light may be judged from exposures of 45-80 mins. between 10.30 A.M. + 2.-P.M. (diaphragm 32). Fresh offshore breeze + water pound at the C. one mile long + ¼ wide, + other parts beyond. Photos today of bear + fighting bucks. Started the construction of a snow house studio on the main hatch. The 2 Porter Bay men should have been in tonight but they are a poor lot.

1908 10272710/27/1908 Robert E. Peary

Only zero this morning

10-26-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Only zero this morning at 7 oclock, but I think it is colder now as it has been snowing a little all day, and is still at it but it is more light frost. Borup and the Com. have been taking flash light pictures of Deer bear and musk ox heads, today on deck, it is quite dark now in the day time, Bill [Miss Bill] has been parbloctoe since supper and went onshore to the box house. Some of the Coona’s went with her and stayed until she got ready to come back onboard again, which she did in a little while.

1908 10262610/26/1908 George Wardwell

A hissing, seething mess

10-25-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Colan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Very misty this morning so am obliged to wait for the mist to clear away, which it did at 10 o’clock for a few minutes only, but that was sufficient. I got what I wanted and started on for the Captain’s trail at Cape Colan. There was evidence to the eye of heavy wind at the mouth of the fiord. Drifting snow had obliterated his trail entirely altho he had passed by but the day before as I learned from the following note found in split stick in the snow. Thursday, Oct. 22 My dear Mac: Have part of load to Good Pt. and will have the other load and a half tomorrow. The wind and snow have played hell with things and the God damned dogs I don’t know what is wrong with them. Hope you are well. Sincerely, Rob Here I left a sketch of the Inlet showing caches of musk-ox and bear meat which he was to get if he had the time, and a note telling him what I had done. Also a leg of musk ox and a leg of bear meat for a well deserved feed. I think it will be appreciated.

1908 10252510/25/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Fine silt of snow

10-24-1908 : Morning
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Fine silt of snow all day. Temp. a little below 0°. Inahle to do any photographing. Early this morning sent Ootah, Inughito, Ahugodepsu + Ahlettah to Porter Bay with 3 sledges + teams. The 2 former are to remain there several days + hunt, the two latter will return at once. Pooadloonah + Sigloo of Marvin’s party also went out with them to bring in their sledge left at Williams Island. The latter returned about 6.-P.M.

1908 10242410/24/1908 Robert E. Peary

What little light is left

10-23-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Weather similar to yesterday. It seems impossible with the steadily silting snow + overcast sky to get any good (photographically) from what little light is left. Made some 7’ + 14’ exposures of the M.O. [musk ox] + bear heads, + arranged two deer heads fighting.

1908 10232310/23/1908 Robert E. Peary

Kerosene stoves

10-22-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

7º above this morning at 7 oclock. Frost or snow fell all night and all day but it dont amount to much it is so light. Marvin arrived tonight. Left his men this morning to break the trail and found the snow pretty deep, he said it was the worst day’s travel he had seen since he had been gone. They got 19 Deer and had eaten and fed to the dogs the most of it, said he had one good load and told the natives not to give it to the dogs as he would send some whale meat out for them, and there is a man getting ready now to go with it and also some provisions for the men. He said he didn’t see a sign of a Musk ox, and a very few hare. We are still at work on kerosene stoves.

1908 10222210/22/1908 George Wardwell

Our ship food is nearly out

10-21-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Aldrich, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

So dark this morning that we could not start until long after breakfast. A cold night, [undecipherable]. As our ship food is nearly gone the boys have kindly offered it all to me saying they will live on oming-muk. This will give me a number of additional meals. To entertain the boys I have tried to tell them of the wonderful things on our country, drawing pictures of blocks in New York, of a train to show them how we travel. In all of this they seemed to be much interested. We break camp at 9 o’clock and travel until 3-30 around the lower end of inlet and partly up the western side. Have been thinking today as I tramped along of good times in Mrs. Lavender’s attic on rainy days in Provincetown, of pleasant nights spent there with Elbridge and her beans on Sunday morning! A kind hearted woman she was to me and down in my heart there is a warm place for her. Will try sleeping between the huskies [undecipherable] in an endeavor to be comfortable. My underclothes are wet with walking which means a shivering night for me until they are dried by the heat of my body.

1908 10212110/21/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Patience testing work

10-20-1908 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Weather practically a duplicate of yesterday. Sent Ootah + Ahlettah out to being in their sledges + things. Continuation of the photo work of yesterday. Patience testing work. Wide lane of open water from Sheridan past us towards Rawson this forenoon.

1908 10202010/20/1908 Robert E. Peary

The moon is growing small

10-19-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

3º below this morning, but is growing cold tonight. There is quite a breeze and the snow is drifting come tonight. The mate told me that large berg was 240 feet wide bout 300 feet long. That is about the thickest peice [sic] I have seen here. The most of it is 30 to 40 feet thick once in awhile we see some that is 60 feet thick. It is growing dark so we have to keep a lamp burning about all day. The moon is growing small and going away. The waterback in the cooks stove has burst again and are going to put a pipe in tomorrow.

1908 10191910/19/1908 George Wardwell

Matt came in alone

10-18-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The promise of yesterday not fulfilled. The trip, during the night after dropping to -19°, jumped back to 0° this morning + the day has been thick with a fine silt of snow. This evening it looks as if it might possibly be clear again tomorrow. About midnight Matt came in alone saying he had started ahead of his sledges in Black Cliffs Bay to break a trail + after waiting + waiting for them, had come in alone. His party has seen no M.O. + got only 8 deer. They have been out just 20 days. I started Ahngoologipsu out at once this morning with the broad runner sledge + 12 dogs to meet the men + assist them in. All got in about 4.-P.M. leaving a sledge + all their things this side of Williams I. Matt states no snow, much wind, + very low temps. in Hazen region. His failure to secure game will make it necessary for me to work the Feilden + Parry peninsula + C. Markham Inlet regions more thoroughly. Two months today since we left Etah, but it seems much longer.

1908 10181810/18/1908 Robert E. Peary

I decided not to wait

10-17-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Clements Markham Inlet, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

When ready to break camp this morning I found the Captain had gone back after his men. This left me without the knowledge of Hamilton Bluff where I was to begin my survey of the Inlet. But I decided not to wait trusting that a view of it would decide it for me. From now on it was break trail continuously. Arriving at Hamilton Bluff I set up the transit and secured a number of sights both across and down the Inlet. Here I began my count of every step for practically eight miles, stepping about 2400 to the mile. Tonight we are encamped 6 ¼ miles in the Inlet at the base of an almost perpendicular cliff. A view from the door of our tupik would delight an artist or lover of nature. The western side of fiord outlined against a beautiful sky twinkling with numberless stars. The snowy tops, the sharp ridges, the shadowy ravines, and over all the half moon – I close the tent flap with reluctance.

1908 10171710/17/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

We plodded on

10-16-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Sail Harbor, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Wind subsided toward morning, leaving drifts through which we waded all day long. About 10 o’clock it started to blow again, blinding the dogs and discouraging the Inuits who wanted to go into camp saying it was impossible to find the trail. But we plodded on through the pass up the hills down into Sail Harbor, the Capt. and I leading the way on snow shoes breaking the trail, going over it five and six times. In spite of this some of the Inuits were obliged to throw off half of their loads and some to encamp in the hollow of the hills. My two were the only ones to come through with whole loads.

1908 10161610/16/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

We keep a light going all day

10-15-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Not very cold today about zero I guess, I didn’t ask. Has been snowing part of the afternoon about 2 inches have fallen now I think. Could hear the ice running a little outside this morning. It is growing dark. We keep a light going all day in the room now. The men are building another box house on the shore close to the other two, so in case the ship should burn we would have a place to dog without waiting to build, even a snow Igloo. We have been making a tin kerosene stove today.

1908 10151510/15/1908 George Wardwell

16 miles today

10-14-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Porter Bay, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Fourteen sledges, 140 dogs left the Roosevelt this morning, two of the sledges to go with me to for the survey of Clements Markham Inlet and twelve with Capt. Bartlett to carry provisions to Cape Columbia. As I sat on the leading sledge and looked back at the trotting dogs, tails curved up over their backs, the Esquimaux snapping their long whips, sledge after sledge it was a most interesting moving picture, a novel sight and one long to be remembered. We arrived at Cape Richardson at quarter past three. Here twelve of the sledges added to their load from the provisions station. We left at 7 min past four. Arrived at Porter Bay at 9 min past 10 – a long day for our dogs and men. My pedometer says 16 miles today. At twelve o’clock tucked in my bear skin for the night.

1908 10141410/14/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Doing everything he possibly can

10-13-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Have been getting my things together for the trip to Clements Markham Inlet. Commander is doing everything he possibly can to [make] my trip a comfortable one – has had made a nanook sleeping bag, has lent me his fox skin kooletah, his medicine case, thermometer, in fact his complete outfit. If I do not enjoy the trip it will be of no fault or oversight on his part.

1908 10131310/13/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Preparing all day

10-12-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Have been preparing all day for my trip to Clements Markham Inlet. As George is foot sore from his two weeks trip to Cape Columbia I shall be obliged to go alone with Egingwah and Oblooyah. Have been “ping-ee-ahto” with the Esquimaux tonight on the ice foot.

1908 10121210/12/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Read Mrs. Hubbard's book

10-11-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The Capt. and nine natives arrived at 5.30 P.M. Dr. and Borup are on the way. It is 7. P.M. now. The Capt party got 3 musk oxen while on the trip. It was 6º below this morning, went down to 14º below in the night. I have read Mrs. Hubbards book of her trip through Labrador today. It has been cloudy and frosty all day. I think the ice has crowded us over a little since yesterday. Every time we ground she lists over a little more and the heavy ice works under the outside. Last time we staid upright all winter. The Com. told me that he lanced 2 of those musk ox that they killed just as an experiment and to see if they would run out at him the same as they did the dog. They didnt bother him at all, but one of them chased a dog, and caught him ripped his hind legs open, and they had to leave him up there.

1908 10111110/11/1908 George Wardwell

Arctic children

10-10-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Have been developing pictures nearly all day finishing up everything for Commander. Took a long walk up the trail tonight – a beautiful sight with the fool moon in the east throwing long shadows of pointed floe bergs upon the ice foot. Off in the distance I could hear the long doleful howling of a stray dog or wolf. As our dogs caught the sound they took it up with a low whining gradually increasing to one long prolonged howl. As I came back I heard the laughter and shouts of children and women playing games on the ice foot. Altho it was 6 below zero these arctic children played as children at home in August.

1908 10101010/10/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Last day to see the sun

10-09-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

This is the last day to see the sun from the ship. The moon is coming. Saw it for awhile last night after it set. We could see a light streak away across the sky in the south and another from the sun in the north The Com. with 3 natives arrived at noon today, they had killed 15 musk ox and a large bear, brought in the bear and one musk ox head and skin besides a lot of meat. He said the Capt.’s party had killed 4. musk ox so far while hauling the provisions to Cape Columbia. The women had another singing spell ashore last night. 6º above this morning. Not very cold yet, and not much snow. It is trying hard to snow but hasnt snowded [sic] yet, just a little frost falling all day. The women went to the traps today got a hare and a leming. A dog got in one of them the other night when McMillan went down that way with them. He took him out didnt hurt him much.

1908 10090910/09/1908 George Wardwell

Still listed over

10-08-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

5º above this morning, could see about half of the sun above the hill this morning. The ice has been going south all day outside about a Quarter of a mile. We are still listed over a little. The three natives went out again today with loads of whale meat. Bill was parbloctoe again tonight and went out on the ice got up on a large pinnacle and commenced to sing and clap her hands. I should got a picture of her if it hadnt been so dark. The women had a great sing ashore in the box house last night.

1908 10080810/08/1908 George Wardwell

Peterson's grave

10-07-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Elllesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

This morning I took my snow shoes and tramped up to the summit of the hill to the Roosevelt cairn of three years ago, also visiting the English Alert cairn of 1876 a short distance away, afterwards going to Peterson’s grave who died on the Alert in May 1876. The head piece was made of hard wood covered with sheet copper and the lettering made with a prick punch was finely done. Finished necklaces tonight. Three Esquimaux returned to ship today for whale meat and oil for commander and his party hunting in Clement’s Markham Inlet. Will start back for Porter Bay tomorrow.

1908 10070710/07/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Drawing necklaces

10-06-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Have been drawing necklaces for the Commander today. We have a piblockto victim about every day. One woman ran out on the ice tonight with not a thing on. The women caught her, laid her on a musk ox robe and held her down for half an hour. A streak of light shined out on the polar ice tonight up opposite Cape Sheridan presenting a very peculiar effect, almost like a search light.

1908 10060610/06/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Fine large antlers

10-05-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The Com’s party got one Deer so far and one of the natives brought it in tonight, he is going back tomorrow, he said two more of the natives would be in by & by. Only 3º below this morning but it seems colder for there has been quite a breeze. The Deer has fine large antlers. The air is full of frost tonight.

1908 10050510/05/1908 George Wardwell

Thermometer about zero

10-04-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A beautiful day, one of the best we have had. Thermometer about zero. Took 12 photos of men, ice formations along the ice foot, etc. Developed in afternoon. The Esquimaux played foot ball in the evening.

1908 10040410/04/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Got out the foot-ball

10-03-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Made measurements of ice foot today. We are 348 feet 6 in. from shore. The floe berg just outside of us is 17 feet high. Distance to lead 510 feet. Cut steps in high berg ahead of us preparatory to taking pictures tomorrow. Koodlookto and Augaligibso came back tonight from Porter Bay where Commander is encamped, having made the distance in one day. Tonight I got out the foot-ball for the Esquimaux. Men, women and children had a great time. They kikked [sic] until they were thoroughly tired. Although the thermometer stood at 2+ it was hot work.

1908 10030310/03/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Commander left this morning

10-02-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Commander left this morning with Oblooyah, Koolatinah, Eginwah, Augilogibso and Usharkubsee, also Koodlookto to hunt musk oxen in Clements Markham Inlet. Koodlookto and Usharkubsee will be back tomorrow night. Developing films this afternoon.

1908 10020210/02/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Quite a lot to get ready

10-01-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Eleven above zero this morning and partly cloudy. The Second has been at work on some cooking contrivances today. There are quite a lot to get ready. One of the firemen has worked as a tailor so he is letting my Cordroy [sic] coat out in front and adding a little sheepskin to the lining. Has it basted up it fits allright perhaps it will be large enough so I can wear it around home. The Com. has taken a few pictures today, and I took a couple of a Deer’s head.

1908 10010110/01/1908 George Wardwell

Developing pictures again

09-30-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Temperature this morning 6+. A fine day. Found three of my dogs loose. Caught them and tied them up more securely. Developing pictures again this afternoon.

1908 09303009/30/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Last day of the month

09-30-1908 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Last day of the month. A little milder than yesterday. Rather brisk off shore breeze at times, clearing in evening. Trying more sledging parties this afternoon but can get no sunlight. Woman visiting fox traps at C. Rawson today report hearing a wolf howling. Shot a young ivory gull at the ship this evening.

1908 093030b09/30/1908 Robert E. Peary

The Roosevelt was a blaze of light

09-29-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

This morning we went up to point to take pictures of sledges, dogs, and Esquimaux going over the ice. Far to the west the sun shone brilliantly on some of the mountain peaks, making a beautiful sight. After getting back to the ship our very spot was lighted up, the pack ice and upper mast of the Roosevelt was a blaze of light. I developed pictures most of the afternoon and evening.

1908 09292909/29/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Signs of cleaning up

09-28-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A foggy calm morning with signs of cleaning. Temp. about 0°. By 9.- A.M., the following parties got away. Henson, Ootah, Alettah, Inughito for north side of Lake Hazen, Marvin, Pooadloonah, Sigloo, Areo, for east end + south side Lake Hazen. Captain, Panikpah, Inughito, Oo-ke-yah; Dr, Inughito, Keshingwah, Kyootah; Borup, Karjo, Tan-ching-wah, Alnuatingwah for C. Columbia.

1908 09282809/28/1908 Robert E. Peary

Good results

09-27-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Developed pictures nearly all day for Commander. Got some good results. Everyone busy preparing for a long trip.

1908 09272709/27/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Air full of frost

09-26-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The hunters came in tonight with a few hare, and brought in the old sledge that Mat. used last trip that was left up the coast apiece. I saw a pair of Musk ox horns on one sledge. I think they got them off of some old head that was left here before. We just had a little pressure that listed us over a little bit. It didn’t last long for we are pretty well protected by the bergs outside of us but it moved them in a little, the ice is very heavy that is running outside. It broke up the new ice on our starboard side. Borup and the Dr. with some Eskimos have gone to Cape Belknap today with a load of Provisions, expect they will be back tonight. 8º below this morning, and the air full of frost.

1908 09262609/26/1908 George Wardwell

Getting stronger

09-25-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Up a while today. Gradually getting stronger. Loaded [photographic] plates in after hold for Commander.

1908 09252509/25/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Not very cold

09-25-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The weather keeps about the same not very cold for this country. The air has been full of frost all day. The ice moved off a little just outside of us. There are some very heavy floes of old arctic ice where it has rafted up long ago and filled in smothe [sic] with snow. Should say it was as much as 60 feet high looks like little mountains.

1908 092525b09/25/1908 George Wardwell

Completed the box house workshop

09-24-1908 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Another mild overcast day. Temp. in vicinity of +10°. Ships men completed the box house workshop + began another double house for Eskimos. About 3.- P.M., the advance guard of Marvin’s party come in reporting 14 deer killed just south of Porter Bay. By 7.- P.M. entire party was in with the skins + meat. The deer comprises two herds. One of 9, a fine large buck, 4 does + four fawns. The other of 5; a buck, 3 does + one fawn. All the fawns have spike horns in the velvet. Two other deer were seen. These as well as others will doubtless be gathered in by the 4 men remaining at Porter Bay.

1908 09242409/24/1908 Robert E. Peary

Building box houses

09-23-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

5º below last and 6 above this morning it has been quite cool all day with a little wind. The ice was running last night and this morning a little outside of us and was piling up down at Cape Rawson. The boys are building box houses, began this morning. One of the women has gone up over the hill parbloctoe and two more after her. One of those that was parbloctoe last night went around and shook hands with everybody just as polite as could be just as though she had been away a long time.

1908 09232309/23/1908 George Wardwell

Very weak

09-22-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Up a little while today. Very weak. Temperature 100 2/5.

1908 09222209/22/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

They will be gone three or four days

09-21-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Twenty-three teams went to Porter bay this morning with pemmican [sic], and are to fleet the rest of the provisions from Cape Richardson up to there, they will be gone three or four days. Four of my men have been at work with the sailors today and two drilling sledge shoes, the Second has been soldering up some holes in kerosene cans for the hunting parties to take oil in the field. Mc.Millan & Murphy one of the sailors have been sick in bed for two weeks but are gaining a little now. McMillan sat up a little while today.

1908 09212109/21/1908 George Wardwell

No sunshine at all

09-20-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The air has been full of frost today, no sunshine at all, although not much has fallen, perhaps a couple of inches. The Dr. was the last of the crowd to get in last night at 12 oclock. We had Venison steak today for dinner. It was 20 above this morning. The ice has been going south slowly all day, out in the middle of the channel ¼ of a mile or more from here. A pup fell of the forward house onto the ice this morning, hurt one of his hind legs but I see he is using it a little tonight.

1908 09202009/20/1908 George Wardwell

Study + perfect

09-19-1908 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Began snowing steadily during night + has continued all day. Temperature high. Very thick. Bearskins + 3 deerskins salted down green in a barrel. Between 7.- + 10.- P.M. the sledge party except the Dr. returned. Young ice was encountered in Black Cliffs Bay. Yesterdays loads with the biscuit of the previous trip were all deposited on west side of B.C. Bay a few miles south of C. Richardson. Matt completed today the assembling of the mast + span model made on the last trip, so that I can study + perfect some.

1908 09191909/19/1908 Robert E. Peary

Ice has been entirely quiet today

09-18-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Another soft warm cloudy day, nearly calm, with fine drizzle of snow much of the time. Marvin, Dr., Borup, + 13 Esks, with 16 sledges got away after breakfast for C. Richardson with 56 cases of crew pemmican. This is a net amount of 4032 lbs, + a gross of 5320# giving a gross load to each sledge of 332 1/2#. They are to go to C. Richardson today, sleep there, bring up the biscuit from C. Belknap tomorrow morning + come back to ship tomorrow afternoon. This will break the Dr. + Borup in gradually. Have had the women skin out the heads + clean the skins of the bear + three deer. The ice has been entirely quiet today. Several of the women were out today for a few hours to the small lake just beyond Sheridan trying for fish. Three or four small ones were obtained.

1908 09181809/18/1908 Robert E. Peary

No better

09-17-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

No better today. Temperature 100 2/5.

1908 09171709/17/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Snow too deep

09-17-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

A warm overcast day with fog in evening. Numbers of water holes to N.E. some miles away. Temp. rising to 20°. Completed work in the engine room skylight, making a room for Marvin + a storeroom. Matt also finishes new type of broad runner sledge. Wt. 105 lbs. which can be reduced in another one to at least 95#. Had a standard 50 day load put on it, + shall now do some experimenting. At supper time the two hunting parties came in, bringing in 3 deer, (a family, buck, doe + fawn) killed west of Black Cliffs Bay, 6 hare + 2 eider ducks. 21 hare in all were killed. Neither party has been far; the northern party having camped near the head of Black Cliffs Bay, + the other having made only one march into the interior towards Porter Bay. The interior party say that as soon as they got away from the shore they found the snow too deep + soft for travel, as there has been no wind here. They saw no tracks of either deer or muskoxen. The northern party saw no tracks of muskoxen. Their experience however is no criterion as they have covered but little ground, + that not a favorable region.

1908 091717b09/17/1908 Robert E. Peary

Everything onshore

09-16-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Sixteen teams went to Cape Belknap today. Each took a load of 250 lbs of Hardbread mostly. Marvin Borup & the Dr. each drove a team, it has been fine but cool today. I took some pictures of the dog teams as they were lined up for the start. The ice is still running outside of us. We havnt had any pressure lately but expect it at any time, for the ice is very heavy with large blocks piled ontop of the floes. It has had some heavy pressure somewhere to heave it up in such ridges. The teams all got back about 7 oclock tonight. We have our work finished in the Engineroom. Got through with the last of it at 4.30 tonight. On Sept. the 16th the time we were here before we got a heavy pressure, and all hands worked until we got all the provisions of the ship. We have everything onshore now, and I hope we wont be disturbed this time.

1908 09161609/16/1908 George Wardwell

Weak as a kitten

09-15-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Sat up for a while today, felt as weak as a kitten. Came back to bed early. Tempt. 100 2/5.

1908 09151509/15/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

The ice is going back and forth

09-15-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Another fine day. 7 above this morning. Two teams of dogs went away this morning, to break the road apiece, they have just got back. All the teams are going in the morning to take provisions for the polar trip, and cache them one days travel from here. The ice is going back and forth just outside of us, runs pretty fast.

1908 091515b09/15/1908 George Wardwell

Many rats on board

09-14-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

After showing Borup + the Dr. how to change the sheets on the Baro- + Thermo- graphs, we discovered that the Com. was having all the sail set on the Roosevelt to get some more photos. That changed the work he had planned for Borup and I so I did a few odds + ends + at 11 oclock I am in the room writing as the huskies have gone to dinner. The New Foundland people use the word spell in a funny way. Carrying timber from the ship to the shore would be “spelling boards”. Started the huskies going again just before dinner and then after dinner cleaned up the ice foot and the shore line again. Found four bags of rock salt left below high water mark and all the salt was gone. Borup and I broke out all the skins from the lazarette and stowed them inside of the sail cover which had just been put on the spanker. We have many rats on board this time, a thing we never had last time. We have got to get everything out of their reach that they are liable to eat. We just finished this at supper time. The Com. has much more clothing outfit than he had last time. Still he intends to send me into the field for a month without any foot gear except my on make of canvass boots. I can stand it all right. The last quarter of the moon was very bright all the evening. Dogs are divided into teams of ten each and the men are out exercising some tonight.

1908 09141409/14/1908 Ross Marvin

Tried to get some sewing done

09-13-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Left off my fur clothing today expecting to remain indoors. The sun was shining bright with prospects of a lovely day, nearly calm, and very few clouds. After breakfast Borup + the Captain went hunting, then the Dr. + his husky went in the opposite direction. While the Captain was away I filled the room with seamstresses and tried to get some sewing done even if it was Sunday. After dinner the Chief + I went ashore to get some pictures of the ship as the flags were all up again today. Took several views of the dogs + cases ashore. Got a pair of canvass boots and a pair of stockings made today. MacMillan is still laid up but was out a little while this afternoon. Captain + Borup returned early, the Captain having strained his knee cap falling on a sharp stone. Seven oclock + the Dr. is in sight, he had fired, since he came into view. Com. gave Borup + I a job to keep us busy tomorrow. Dr. arrived about seven oclock. His husky shot one rabbit after they were back in sight of the ship, weight 10 lbs. Had it skinned and dressed, also started Innwahu in at making a shirt for Borup out of a piece of felt he brought along for photography. Chief expects to get through tomorrow so they can lay the floor in the engine room hatchway.

1908 09131309/13/1908 Ross Marvin

Marie's Birthday

09-12-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Marie’s birthday. The dear girl is 15 today, + she + her Mother + “Mister Man” are thinking of us today. Ten yrs. ago today we celebrated her 5th birthday on the Windward. The weather is the same as for the last two days, a continuance of the n-w-ly storm. Just after breakfast the Eskimos came in with the bear, a female yearling, 6ft long, which I had skinned + cut up. Shall try + have it mounted for Marie’s birthday bear. (mount standing + advancing, one paw extended as if to “shake”, the other raised?, the head on one side, + a smile on the face.) Captain “Bob” had the ship dressed in the flags today, + the bright colors of the bunting made a striking contrast to the driving storm. Charlie baked cakes last night, which we had at supper tonight with our bearsteak, + the accompaniments of tablecloth, cups + saucer, new spoons etc. There were also 15 blazing candles. All the smokers aft got a half pound box of North Pole tobacco and all the drinkers a pull of whisky. The men forward got a glass of hot grog + a package of North Pole tobacco; each of the Eskimo men got a half pound box of tobacco, + each of the women a hands full of candy.

1908 09121209/12/1908 Robert E. Peary

Continuation of the storm

09-11-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Continuation of the storm though the temperature is a little higher. The R – has recovered entirely from last night’s pressure, + though aground forward + aft at low tide, is now on an even keel. In the afternoon Keshingwah came in + reported they had killed a bear in Dumb-bell Bay but had been unable to reach it owning to the thinness of the ice. Sent 3 Eskimos with 2 sledges + teams + a kayak back with him, to bring the bear in whole. K – reports the wind blowing much harder where they were, + all along than it is at the ship.

1908 09111109/11/1908 Robert E. Peary

We all laughed

09-10-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Turned out at the usual hour + the Dr. + I took the temperature again. A strong northerly wind and a heavy frost almost like falling snow. After breakfast the Captain and his crew (?) the ship into her permanent berth for the winter. Went out for my usual morning trip but it was raw + cold so did not stay out long, gathered in some supplies to make my kitchen box and worked around inside all the morning. After dinner I am waiting for Borup to bring up some sheepskins for the natives and then I will give them out. In the meantime I am writing a little for the first time since we reached Cape Sheridan. Borup was telling the Com. how strong one of the little girls was + he made us all laugh. Opened a letter today which counted a dozen stars. At the supper table Borup started to tell how strong Bill was and the Com. interrupted him to ask if he was going the rounds with all the women trying their strength. The laugh was on Borup, especially to those of us who have been up here before. Spent most of the afternoon in straightening out the 30 odd sheepskin and in getting all the sewing started. The Dr. has had some trouble this afternoon in getting his blanket shirt repaired. He made a bargain with the woman’s husband + then backed down. We all laughed.

1908 09101009/10/1908 Ross Marvin

6 or 8 inches of snow

09-09-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

We are laying the Boilers & Engine etc. up for Winter, and it looks it now for there is 6 or 8 inches of snow on the land, and the heavy ice is drifting back and forth with the tide. I expect to see it swing in here at any time and give us a push upon the shore, we are in a little cove made by the icebergs being aground in shoal water North and South of us. The deep water makes right in to a steep bank. We are on the bank and ground at every tide, the water being so deep outside of us gives the heavy ice a chance to come close to us before it brings up and then pushes right up the bank into shoal water. If the water deepened gradually we would be in a fine place. Six Eskimos started for Lake Hazen today to get fish for winter, and what other game they can find. I hope they will find some Musk ox or deer for we are about out of fresh meat. The Dr. and Mr. Borup have been out a number of times but havnt shot a thing yet. The Com. got two hare just below here at Cape Rawson the only thing that has been shot since we left Lincoln bay.

1908 09090909/09/1908 George Wardwell

Finishing the whale meat

09-08-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The Commander spoke about finishing the whale meat yesterday but we only made a fair beginning. Started at it fresh this morning + by keeping two or three sledges going most of the day have made a good job of it. The coal bags already slimy with the whale meat, was [sic] used to build a wall ashore and the whale meat piled inside of it. We laid out the wall but we pulled that and another one early as large before we finished one days work. The Captain put the hose on the deck the last thing but it only took off the worse of the grease and dirt. There is still plenty of coal on the deck. I did not have Borup + the Doctor today I guess the work was too dirty for them. MacMillan is still laid up, poor fellow. If he stays in bed has hardly any fever + gets restless to be about. If he gets up he gets a little fever in the evening and the Doctor puts him to bed again. Dennis Murphy one of the sailors is laid up in about the same way. It seems to me a good deal like typhoid fever. The Doctor is non-committal so I guess it is something worse than ordinary grip.

1908 09080809/08/1908 Ross Marvin

Fixed up for winter

09-07-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Mr. Marvin got all the cartridges but I guess they will have to be washed with fresh water and greased. We got a little pressure last night but didnt hurt us any. It rolled the ship over a little but she came back again and we got inside of the berg this morning at 6 oclock, one boiler was leaking and had to blow it off so I guess that lightened her just enough to get in. They are taking the Whale meat ashore, and the Eskimo women are cleaning their forecastle and I guess it needed it by the looks of the stuff they are draging [sic] out. The boiler leaked on the top seam of the combustion chamber (port boiler) and the other one is leaking in the back somewhere, cant see it yet. The Com. told me today we could lay her up now any time, and are at work on the boiler and Engineroom today. Will try to get the deck Engine fixed up for winter tomorrow.

1908 09070709/07/1908 George Wardwell

All hands at work

09-06-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

All hands at work today unloading provisions so we can get inside of an iceberg. We are aground forward yet it is open outside of us now. The ice came in easy last night and didnt disturb us any, but cant tell when it will come in with a rush, so are in a hurry to get in. There are large blocks all along the shore both forward and astern of us, the Eskimos are using the dogs to haul the provisions ashore. Mr. Marvin just broke through the new ice with a whole sledge load of cartridges, it is shoal water so I think they will get them all.

1908 09060609/06/1908 George Wardwell

No better

09-06-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

No better.

1908 090606b09/06/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Arrived

09-05-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

Arrived at winter quarters and commenced unloading at once. Still in bed.

1908 09050509/05/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

15 mins. later

09-05-1908 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, CAN
George Wardwell

The wind continuing with force from the south, the ice began to slack off a little behind us at 3.A.M. + gradually extended in-ward. At 6. – A.M. got under way, forced through a narrow barrier at the delta ahead of us, + then in a strip of ice free inshore water steamed uninterrupted to Sheridan which was passed at 7.15 A.M. (15 mins. later than when we arrived 3 yrs. ago). The water extended some 2 miles beyond Sheridan + we steamed to the end, + there being no immediate prospect of getting to Porter Bay as I had hoped, I decided for Sheridan again, + the work of getting the ship inside the tide crack was begun. The place selected is nearer the river than before. The water a little shoaler than I had hoped, + the grounding of the R- delayed matters some but tonight she is nearly where I want her, + the dogs + the bacon + hash from the fores peak have been landed, a total of some 12 tons. The main deck has also been washed down. The relief from the dogs with their noise filth is great. Thank God we have again made good on the first part of the proposition. Though we have had no such risks as on the former upward voyage, + have accomplished it in 37 hours less time, the voyage with its early promise of speedy navigations, + its subsequent exasperating delays, has seemed longer + been more wearing. Since the 23rd when we ended our splendid run from C. Hawkes, neither Bartlett nor myself have had our clothes off. Although as we arrived the strong s-ly breeze ceased + with the flood tide the water closed up. The ice is very heavy but about here more broken than 3 years ago. There is one huge floe which reaches nearly from here to Rawson, with great hummocks on it, + there are several large ones off C. Belknap.

1908 090505b09/05/1908 Robert E. Peary

We managed to get along

09-04-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

Turned out at 6.30 A.M. and found a fresh southerly breeze blowing. It has already opened the water to the south of us. The Captain + I had breakfast at once and he then proceeded to get out of our little nest among the grounded pieces. The rubble ice had frozen together around us and it took over a half hour to get the Roosevelt out. We steamed around a bit and then came back again to await the action of the wind on several of the tides. The tide is running out this morning. (10.30 A.M.) About 5 oclock this evening should be our next chance. Three years ago tomorrow morning (7 A.M.) we reached Cape Sheridan. We may still beat that by a few hours. Spent the afternoon in working about the ship. Right after supper the Captain got under way again + by running close to the land + in between pans we managed to get along. We rounded Black Cape + could see out way clear nearly up to Rawson. The ice was moving as we passed along. We had to back out of one narrow place while the pans shifted. Roosevelt did not mind her helm well in the wind + the tide. The ice was closing in before we reached Rawson + we came up against the solid ice. We began to drift southward so ran in behind a giant piece to await the turn of the tide. Com. went ashore + got two hare, 10 ½, 9 ½ lbs. respectively.

1908 09040409/04/1908 Ross Marvin

Just half way

09-03-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

We succeeded in getting just half way to our prospective winter quarters. Got up at 4 o’clock this afternoon. Am very weak and out of condition generally. George fell overboard again today when carrying a camera to Commander on the ice.

1908 09030309/03/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Ice very quiet

09-02-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

The ice very quiet all night + no water forming with the flood tide as usually it has. Before breakfast Ootah + Alitah returned with the sledge + dogs, reporting the going too rough for even a light sledge, in the absence of snow. Ooblooyah + Oo-ke-yah remained out for a further scout. A little air from the S.W. in morning cleared away the fog. Ice very quiet. About 6. – P.M. barometer appears to have reached bottom of its curve. Wind freshening a little from S.W. but by no means steady. Some water forming. Ooblooyah + Oo-ke-yah returned in afternoon, with 3 hare. They report a bear track up the bay + number of hare beyond the little lake, but very wild. MacMillan under the weather today, cold chill or something of the kind.

1908 09020209/02/1908 Robert E. Peary

A southerly wind is our only salvation

09-01-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

Was wide awake when this day began. Had a visit of nearly an hour with my little child friend Evaloo. She is lonesome at times and seems rather discontented with her lot on shipboard, a place which many an older one would envy. About two oclock I recalled that I had a note dated Sept. 1st so I hastened to open it. It was a telephone call as usual (23x) I looked up at my watch and the hour hand was at 2 and the minute hand at 3. The x stands for the unknown I suppose. Turned in about 3 oclock, breakfast at seven and then a nap until nearly ten. Now I am writing a little as the room is quiet, all hands asleep again. Captain, MacMillan and Borup returned before breakfast. The Captain said something about his harem-scarem trip so I did not question him further as he did not appear in good spirits over the results of his trip. After dinner started a woman on a new pair of boots for the Dr. as the first pair are too small. Spent most of the afternoon in visiting and playing with the Eskimos. Aleta, Ootah, Oobluyah + Ossqeeyah left for Lake Hazen to remain until sent for after we got to winter quarters. Soon after supper time it became real misty (a real light colored mist) and so the Captain gladly gave up his trip to the hill tops. He feels the same as I do, that a southerly wind is our only salvation, and there is still time left for that.

1908 09010109/01/1908 Ross Marvin

I wanted to be alone

08-31-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

Back to our old position near our cache of provisions just below Shelter River. More water here so there is less danger of being forced aground. George and I have been developing pictures in our room. Considering our limitations we had rather good luck. A beautiful, quiet, sunny day, scarcely any change in the ice. After supper tired with so much reading. I went on deck for a little exercise. Impulsively I jumped on the ice and started for the shore. Two of the Esquimaux boys jumped down and followed me. We walked together toward Cape Union. Coming to the delta of Shelter River they proposed a race. I started and ran and ran until I was out of sight. I wanted to be alone, to look out upon the Arctic pack from the heights of Cape Union. With no witness and no coat and the thermometer at 15+ I went on, climbed the cliffs, sat in the crevices of the rocks and listened to the slow grinding of the ice along the ice foot – all else was as silent as death. Not a living thing could be seen on the great, wide, white expanse. As I climbed the last ridge a snow bunting greeted me with his sweet chirp. I then continued my way along the edge of the cliff up toward the most northern point of Cape Union. As [far as] I could see a narrow lane of open water led from the Roosevelt. I wanted to go on and on toward the big red sun crowning the crest of the high hill to the north, but Commander should know of the lead. So I ran over the hills toward the west in order to descend by the Shelter River valley. Away off at the foot of the cliff I could see the Roosevelt looking like a toy boat against the land. Arriving on board at 12 o’clock I notified the Capt. of open water. Commander came on deck and suggested to the Capt. that he go to the top of Cape Union with a glass and take another look at it on the ebb tide.

1908 08313108/31/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Getting pushed and mauled

08-30-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

We are here yet getting pushed and mauled around by the ice. Got pushed ashore about 4 oclock this morning and are 4 feet out of water. And while eating dinner a peice broke off from an iceberg and fell alongside and they began to hollow [holler] all hands on deck. It is thick fog now and can’t see very far but as far as we can see the ice is very heavy. We have run a line to a heavy piece [sic] outside of us and are working the Engine and all the deck engines, and making a tow boat of the heavy piece trying to get her off the beach so we can get somewhere out of this for our protector outside has all crumbled to peices the same one hit us this morning and drove us onshore. If we couldnt of moved when that struck it would [have] gone through the ship, abreast my room. We had eider duck today for dinner.

1908 08303008/30/1908 George Wardwell

Ice comparatively quiet

08-29-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

Up at noon. A beautiful day and ice comparatively quiet. Wind is still from north to north-west. Probably no more trouble until tonight on the flood tide. Have been reading almost all the afternoon. Tonight there is a light breeze from the southward. The ice, even on the flood tide, is drifting rapidly to the north giving us a lead to Cape Union. But the wind is gradually decreasing so the channels are that we shall not leave here tonight.

1908 08292908/29/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Had a codfish dinner

08-28-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

The ice just started again since dinner and we got pumps and engine going but it soon quieted down. It pushed the large floes that are outside of us in a little ways, it is all right if they dont come in any farther. It was pretty cold last night. There was a couple of inches of frost fell. The sun is shining today the first time for a couple of days. But the wind is the same No. East and holds the ice against us and onto the land. Marvin told me we had 50 Eskimos in all 22 men 15 women & 13 children, not as many as we had last time, and I think it better. The port wheelrope is broken and they are putting in a peice of chain today. We had a codfish dinner today as it is Friday. I dont think the salt Cod from N.L.F.D. is anything extra. The Cook says it isnt the kind the Capt. bought. If not I dont think people have much feeling for the kind of stuff they put onboard of a ship coming to the country. I suppose anything to get rid of the old stuff.

1908 08282808/28/1908 George Wardwell

It runs like a mill race

08-27-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

Another dragging day. A strong, raw northeast wind blowing steadily + with increasing violence. On the ebb tide the ice in the Channel remains stationary, on the flood it runs like a mill race. The edge of the current is only a few yards from us + we are fairly well protected by grounded pieces outside of us, but every once in a while a big floe comes rushing past crowding everything out of its way + gives our protectors a shove that sets them nearer the shore crowding us in as well, or perhaps breaks a huge piece off. However I have no reason to complain, our position is the best anywhere in the neighborhood, + at worst we can but be forced high + dry on the shore. We are about ¾ mile south of our old place at Shelter River. The delay is being utilized in work which last time we did after we got to Sheridan + so the time is not entirely wasted. Sledges + harnesses are nearly completed, tents, cookers, + clothing are being pushed along + we shall have little but hunting + sledging to do after we arrive.

1908 08272708/27/1908 Robert E. Peary

The ice was closing in on us

08-26-1908 : Afternoon
Ross Marvin
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

It was hardly midnight before the Captain was called out by the mate as the ice was closing in on us again and the same time running north rapidly against the northerly wind. A heavy sheet partly broke around outside of us and continued northward leaving a pond in its wake. From 2 to 3 we steamed about in this pond looking for the safest place but returned to our old position. At 8 A.M. the northerly wind is still blowing, temp. in the 20’s and the sun trying to come out and clear up things. Turned out about 4 A.M. and put on my clothes but then took a nap until 7 A.M. Spent the morning in laying out a pattern for a pair of canvass tops to be sewed on the soft tanned soles of the moccasins the Com. brought along. During the afternoon we landed about a dozen cases of provisions here on the side hill abreast the ship. Tonight is a new moon so we are having the strongest tides this week. Before evening I started a woman sewing up one of my canvass leg boots I think I can get something serviceable after a little while. The Com. seems to have me take charge of all the work for the Eskimo women. Has a tent sewed up for him and am going to put a floor in it for him.

1908 08262608/26/1908 Ross Marvin

Further advance was impossible

08-25-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

Have remained tied up to a floe all night, as further advance was impossible. After breakfast we steamed up to Cape Union but found it blocked by heavy ice, the wind blowing from the north-west. There was a good lead near the shore which we were tempted to enter but Com. Peary decided that we would not risk a squeeze here in such an exposed place. Tonight we are tied up between two grounded floe bergs north of Lincoln Bay waiting for a southerly wind. The Captain saw a school of 7 narwhal today from the crow's nest.

1908 08252508/25/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Stopped by the ice

08-24-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Lincoln Bay, Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

About 4.- A. M. got under way having drifted almost up Shift Rudders Bay, worked in shore + working northward through slack ice + small pools passed Shelter River at 9.- A. M. Just beyond here stopped by the ice. Lay to all day simply keeping the R- from being closed in by the ice. Drifted slowly northward with the ice on the ebb, opening out Black Cape, then with the flood set south again + passed into the loose ice near north shore Lincoln B-. in order to hold what we had gained. For the evening butted out into a larger open lake which remained off the mouth of the Bay to lie for the night. A fine calm sunny day.

1908 08242408/24/1908 Robert E. Peary

We began drifting south

08-23-1908 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
Lincoln Bay, Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

Encountered ice + fog while steaming across mouth of Lady Franklin Bay. Worked along this in effort to get round or through it, bringing up on Greenland Coast just below T. C. Harbor, in early morning. A little later lifted showing a lead through the ice + steaming past C. L. Upton at 7.- A. M. were stopped off south point at Lincoln Bay at 11.-. Remained stationary here till 3.- P. M. when tide turned + we began drifting south.

1908 08232308/23/1908 Robert E. Peary

Half way from Etah to Cape Sheridan

08-22-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Rawlings Bay, Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

We got another start at 9 oclock last night and have been going ever since. It is now 1 P.M. The Com. just told me we were about half way from Etah to Cape Sheridan. We had it thick of fog in the night and couldnt tell where to run to get clear of the large floes and had to run south part of the time so that put us back as much as 20 miles. We are about off Raulings bay [sic] now. While I was eating dinner we came through about a half mile of ice quite close together but it is open again now.

1908 08222208/22/1908 George Wardwell

The wheel rope broke

08-21-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Kennedy Channel
George Wardwell

The ice slacked off at 4 oclock yesterday afternoon and we ran until 8 P.M. and the wheel rope broke and it took 3 hours to fix it and by that time we were packed in solid again and havnt moved since only with the ice back & forth. It is now 1. P.M. Nice sunshine today but a cold wind. It was foggy about all night. The ice is moving off from the side a little but I dont think it can go far for the channel is packed full as far as one can see.

1908 08212108/21/1908 George Wardwell

Clothing is the most essential thing

08-20-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Cape Sabine, Northwest Territories, CAN
George Wardwell

No change in the weather during the night, expecting a little snow fall 4 P.M., no change in ice conditions, very little drift inshore + south, making about S.W. true. Spent the day in cleaning up odds and ends and in keeping the women busy sewing. The boys all seems to leave their sewing to me completely and they are making a mistake as the clothing is the most essential thing for each man to look out for himself. I don't like to tell them openly but I have hinted very strongly that they ought to take more interest right from the start. There is a little open water along the shore, but we all hesitate about getting too far in there. Cloudy sky and rather misty over the high peaks ashore. MacMillan is keeping the game list this time and that relieves me from one of my duties last time. He much better fitted to keep a good game list than I was or ever will be probably. Borup has not seemed to receive any special duties as yet but he appears to be about the best crack shotsman in the party. He is willing and anxious to learn however. Rather thick and not much change in the ships position so did not take any sounding this evening. Got under way soon after 9 oclock and about 10 oclock the starboard wheel cable gave way and we had to stop. This seems too much like a repetition of last years troubles. Still repairing the cable at midnight, received a note today, about Arcturus + the Pleides.

1908 08202008/20/1908 Ross Marvin

Blocked by ice

08-19-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape Sabine, Northwest Territories, CAN
George Wardwell

Blocked by ice nearly all night. This morning tied to a pan and put aboard fresh water. Have been working on boats all day, equipping them for a squeeze, fitting in following articles: 1 set oars, 2 boat hooks, row locks, 1 bailer, liquid compass, oil stove, 4 one gallon tins of oil (plain oil) (1 one gallon tin of oil, patent nozzle), 1 spring filled rifle, 100 cartridges, 1 shot-gun, 50 loaded shells (no. 2 shot), 1 miners tent 7x7, 1 box of matches in tightly corked bottle or screw top tin, 2 tins of biscuit, 12 tins pemmican, 10 tins of milk, 2 tins of sugar, 1 sugar tin of tea, 2 of coffee, Harpoon, line + float. Saw the Bosun bird today, the Parasitic Jaeger, or Long Tailed Jaeger. Still locked in the ice about 10 miles from land.

1908 08191908/19/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Our real ice journey began

08-18-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Cape Sabine, Northwest Territories, CAN
George Wardwell

As it started to clear for about a half hour yesterday afternoon, we started getting the dogs on board. Mr. Whitney + party using their naphtha launch to tow two whale boats full at a time. This made the work go more rapidly than before, but still they were over hours at it and it soon began raining again making it very disagreeable. We are here now all loaded and ready to sail on a half hours notice. The Bos'n + Billy are still on board but all ready to go. I took 50 dollars to Franke and got his receipt for it. Also returned the original of Dr. Cook's letters to him as he was still asking for it. My write up's of the party are being sent back just as I made them up. Mr. Norton expects to come up next year in the Erik after Mr. Whitney, which will probably mean some mail at least if nothing else. Mr. Whitney is making great plans for his winter here and I guess he will stand it and enjoy it all right, but he will be mighty glad to go home again next summer. Began to clear soon after noon and the last hustle + bustle began, personally I was not near so busy as three years ago. At 4.25 we started our engines and steamed out past the Erik. I hauled down the flag in salute and our real ice journey began. We steamed north past Littleton Island + then west to Cape Sabine + then north through leads in the ice.

1908 08181808/18/1908 Ross Marvin

Over two hundred dogs

08-17-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

It has rained and snowed all day long - a very dirty, disagreeable day. We began taking dogs onboard about five o'clock, Whitney towing us in his power boat. It rained and snowed alternately throughout the night - altogether a very disagreeable job to catch and haul to the boat over two hundred dogs. The last twenty-five or so were extremely wild, one taking to the water and swimming almost to the main land before being captured.

1908 08171708/17/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Sabbath Day

08-16-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

Sabbath Day and the crew are not working, the two ships are laying alongside of each other. It is blowing hard from the south and the boats are not running much. Went ashore in the morning and helped the hunters to pick out some pups to take back home with them. Mr. Whitney has finally decided to stay here all winter with the Bos'n's party to hunt walrus, bear and musk oxen. He got permission from the Com. this morning. That makes it much better for all concerned, although he merely remains as a guest of the station. The motherly old woman who sewed for me is going to make his clothes for him. She is an interesting character. She still is wearing the gray shirt I gave her two years ago. I wonder if it will last until we get back again. If it does I think I will give her another. We are taking all three of her sons this time but neither of her daughters, one grandchild by the daughter however. Our party now is 22 men, 16 women, no boys or girls and 11 young children. Considerably less women + children to feed than we had last time. Com. gave me two blue fox skins which I am sending home to mother. Mr. Norton expects to come up in the Erik next summer after Mr. Whitney which means a relief ship sure next summer. I wonder if we will be ready to go back with the pole.

1908 08161608/16/1908 Ross Marvin

20 or 25 tons of whale meat

08-15-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

They finished coaling today, 210 tons by the number of tubs taken. There is 20 or 25 tons of whale meat coming onboard, have the most of it on now 5. P.M. It has been snowing and raining all day a very disagreeable day. The Capt. and natives got back last night with about 30 more dogs and the natives took them over to the little Island to stay until we are ready to go. The wind is South East today and holds the ice fast yet. It needs a good No. East wind to start it coming down.

1908 08151508/15/1908 George Wardwell

Cold and raw too

08-14-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

It is cloudy with some fog on the hill tops today cold and raw too. The oilers were onshore today and got 8 hare. Mat. went out with some of the Eskimos and got two walrus. No water running yet so cant get any for the boiler, expect I will have to fill it with salt water. Am going to wait another day. Are still coaling. The Capt. has gone up the coast apeice after some more dogs and natives. (To Anoritok).

1908 08141408/14/1908 George Wardwell

A gull's paradise

08-13-1908 : Morning
Donald B. MacMillan
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

So hot last night that it was impossible to sleep. The Erik arrived yesterday with Commander, some more Esquimaux, dogs, and thirty-three walrus. We are busy today transferring coal, supplies, skins, narwhal tusks, walrus meat, etc. to Roosevelt. Hoisting provisions on deck and lashing snow shoes in rigging. About 10 o'clock George and I started up the fjord to visit Brother John's Glacier, and to secure some good specimens of hare for the New York Museum. Going up the bed of a river we ascended the height where we succeeded in getting the largest hare obtained since we have arrived in Etah. She weighed 10 lbs. Near here we found the rookery of the Burgomaster Gull one of the most beautiful places I have ever seen. Towering perpendicular cliffs about fifty yards apart, a natural perch of perpendicular rocks midway, a beautiful waterfall near by - a gulls paradise. Coming back we secured one more hare. Arriving at the boat we found that the tide was dead low thirty or forty yards away. After eating our lunch we started up the shores of Alida Lake to see the glacier at its head. Walking up on the terminal moraine we were astounded at the huge cracks in the face of glacier, at the variety of sand, stones, debris brought down by the ice. Going into these we found some most interesting scenery and some exciting climbs. Deciding to go up on the glacier we used our hunting knives to cut steps. Coming down there was nothing to do but which we did, landing in a heap and with a sore tail. A blue fox watched the performance from the edge of the ice. When rowing past the tupiks at the Auk cliffs an Esquimaux woman stuck her head out of a tupik and yelled "Ah gi so" come here. I went ashore and found she was alone and wanted to the "Oomiak-suck". Loading her and her [unreadable] aboard we arrived at Roosevelt about 11 o'clock. Saw three ravens on the trip and listened to their horse cry. These are the Corvus corax principalis.

1908 08131308/13/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

I don't begrudge him his task

08-12-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

Got a list of supplies from Dr. Cook's man and he wrote a letter to the Com. Spent part of the morning getting the huskies started at a hard days work. Then started the trading with the Eskimos. The Com. gave out supplies to all of his party and then called up the five men here and asked them if they wanted to go and they all said yes but one boy. Spent part of the day chasing up Franke and having him get all his supplies that he wants on the Erik. The Com. says that it will be necessary for some one to go up to Anautok with two boats and the natives to bring down the native supplies up there, and he would probably want me. He wants the Bos'n to stay here and take Franke's place and also watch some supplies of our. "Just before supper I went ashore with Franke and inspected the supplies that are left here, there is not much left here however." After supper the Com. decided that he could spare the Captain easier than he could me so he is sending the Captain to Anautok. He is taking two boats and eleven natives, they will be gone several days. I had to make out a list of things to be brought back. Franke got his picture taken and then had a hair cut and shave and put on civilized clothes again. He does not look like the same man now. He is 30 year old but he looked 40 in the native garb. It was nearly midnight when the Captain got away + within 15 minutes it was snowing. I don't begrudge him his task.

1908 08121208/12/1908 Ross Marvin

I don't like the smell

08-11-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

The wind has blown pretty hard today and couldnt get any water for our boiler. It is clear and cold only 34º above this morning. The Erik came in at 4. oclock this afternoon. They had 33 walrus and 8 Deer 2 seal. They are at work now getting the walrus meat onboard of us, and I expect we will take coal tomorrow, and the whale meat, I dont like the smell of that very well it has been kept to long without salt, but can't salt it on account of it killing the dogs, but I think there was saltpeter in the last whale meat we had that made it kill so many dogs. The Erik brought another large lot of dogs and some more Eskimos. Dr. Cooks man has been onboard today and yesterday also. He is a German hasn't heard anything from Dr. Cook yet. They think he is over on Ellsmere land yet and only has a small canvas boat. The Sound is full of ice from a little ways above here to as far as one can see, the north wind is driving the ice down now. The wind has been southerly about all summer.

1908 08111108/11/1908 George Wardwell

300 little auks

08-10-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

The boys got 14 hare and one duck yesterday. Capt. Carpenter McMillan Borup & two Eskimos got 4 walrus and 92 ducks on their hunting trip, so we have lots of everything. The women catch a lot of little auks. Blew of the starboard boiler this afternoon. The cook roasted 300 little auks for dinner today.

1908 08101008/10/1908 George Wardwell

Dr. Cook's man

08-10-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

Turned in about 2.30 after clearing up considerable of my correspondence. About 5 A.M. Dr. Cook's man with his two Huskies (boys) arrived from Ominui. The Captain and I were both asleep. He came and aboard and Charley Percy gave him such a cold reception that he went ashore again disgusted. Charley acted on his own responsibility I guess. Turned out for my morning work and for breakfast and then layed down to sleep again until dinner time. The Captain started overland for Cairn Point soon after dinner but as it was foggy after he reached the high hill tops he decided to postpone his trip until it was clear and he and Inighito returned to the vessel....They reached the vessel soon after supper time and the poor fellow was in a bad way. He had been living on beans for over a month during his boat trip. He has a sore leg and can hardly walk. He don't [sic] get along well with the Huskies either. He says Dr. Cook told him to go home on a whaler this summer if he (Dr. Cook) did not get back. He says perhaps Dr. Cook went down the east coast of Greenland which is well nigh impossible. Gave him a bath in our room and a good warm supper. The Dr. treated his leg and we gave him a drink of whisky. I stayed around with him until after midnight and then he went ashore to sleep.

1908 081010b08/10/1908 Ross Marvin

Had rather a stiff row

08-09-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

Took my usual readings at breakfast time, ate breakfast alone as the Doctor was asleep + the others are not here. After breaking managed to keep the huskies going back and forth with the water boat to fell the boilers, and between times slept most of the time. This Sunday for a change there is not much doing aboard ship. The Bos'n got 4 hare and 1 duck this morning and the Dr. got [left blank] this afternoon. Took several pictures of the Eskimo about the ship in various positions. Loafed away most of the afternoon sleeping, visiting + sending the water boat. A fine day for walrus hunting but there is no one here to go. Another Sunday ought to find us hard at it in the ice. The Dr. was up the summit where he could see the floe ice over toward Cape Sabine. After supper spent most of the evening keeping the Huskies busy filling the water boat. The wind had died down and the sun is shining warm and bright, the finest bit of Arctic Summer weather we have had this trip. The other trip we has [sic] this weather almost continually. Just before midnight the Captain and his party returned with about 100 ducks, 50 eggs, 1 hare and 4 walrus. Had rather a stiff row most of the time. Fine weather for walrus if it was only noon instead of midnight. Spent a few hours about midnight in writing home.

1908 08090908/09/1908 Ross Marvin

Strange emotions

08-08-1908 : Night
Donald B. MacMillan
Littleton Island, Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

After dinner today we started on a boat trip to Littleton Island to determine condition of the ice in Kane Basin. Party composed of Captain, George, Bob, Inughito and myself. We were scarcely out of sight of the vessel when we began to shoot eider ducks, female (Somateria mollissima borealis) and we continued shooting until we got back. With strange emotions I stepped on Littleton Island where Dr. Kane in 1853 built his first cairn, hoisted the American flag and cheered as it snapped in the wind. This is also the island where Greeley hoped to find provisions, promised by the United States Government, and toward which he directed all his energy. Across the Sound in plain sight fifteen of his companions died of starvation. As we neared the shore McGary's Island just outside of Littleton we were astounded at the number of aucks which rose from its shores. Walking over the Island we found it to be the breeding place of the arctic aucks, hundreds and hundreds of nests every where, some still filled with the down from the mother's breast. In a few nests we found eggs, still warm, also young ones. Beneath piles of rocks we discovered hundreds of eggs which had been collected by the Esquimaux for future use. These we tried boiled and found them delicious. We killed about a hundred ducks here. "Boiled the kettle", had tea and crackers and endeavored to get some sleep on the rocks.

1908 08080808/08/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Cold rain with lots of fog

08-07-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Smith Sound, Greenland
George Wardwell

We arrived here last night about 8 oclock. Got 9 walrus on our way up from No. Star bay, all the dogs have been put onshore on a little island in the Harbor. We are having a cold rain with lots of fog today. The Carpenter went ashore last night and got 8 hare and the Dr. went ashore today and got 8 more. We had little auks this morning for breakfast and dinner also, expect to have for supper. I saw the cook getting them ready. The Eskimos brought the little auk onboard. We eat from 4 to 6 each so it takes quite a number to go around. I have seen some of the Eskimos we had last trip. Have a few onboard will have some new ones, as those are scattered all around and we wont be able to spend the time to go around looking for them.

1908 08070708/07/1908 George Wardwell

One month

08-06-1908 : Afternoon
Robert E. Peary
North Star Bay, Greenland
George Wardwell

One month today since the Roosevelt left New York.

1908 08060608/06/1908 Robert E. Peary

The sun shines bright

08-05-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
North Star Bay, Greenland
George Wardwell

Returned to No. Star bay last night at 4. oclock without getting a shot at a walrus from either ship, expect to leave here again this afternoon and try to get some Walrus on our way up to Etah, and the other ship will go up into Englefield gulf for a week or so to try and get a few walrus and seal ducks etc. It is quite fine here today the wind is cold but the sun shines bright and did all night. There are quite a number of large icebergs drifting down the sound. We have a large number of dogs on now I dont know how many but would say 150 and lots of Eskimos, a number of them are only going a little ways. They like to move and this is an easy way for them and they get plenty to eat at the same time. The Dr. and one of the secretaries have gone ashore gunning today, and the mates sailors and Eskimos are taking the provisions from the hold getting ready to coal when we get in Etah.

1908 08050508/05/1908 George Wardwell

Fresh duck and loon for dinner

08-04-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
North Star Bay, Greenland
George Wardwell

Rose as usual before seven oclock and after breakfast got busy getting ready for the walrus hunt as we were already under way. Got all the gear into one of the whale-boats, the Captain taking another one, Matt has gone aboard the Erik to help the hunters there. Fussed around all the morning looking around Wostenholm Sound. Bright sunshine but a cool northerly breeze and no ice pans for the walrus to sun on so we failed to even see any walrus, the Erik saw four but did not get any of them. The motor boat got one yesterday and we hoisted it on board this morning from one of the islands. This afternoon we started back and I got a nap for a few hours in preparation for writing again this evening. Made out a list of all the men in the tribe and the settlement where they are as near as we can find out. Sent several boat loads of trading stuff to the Erik this evening. We are both going walrus hunting near Northumberland Island tomorrow, then the Roosevelt goes to Etah + the Erik with Com. on board goes to the remaining settlements. He has not told me yet whether I am to go on the Erik or stay on the Roosevelt, I suppose it will be go on the Erik again. Had some fresh duck and loon for dinner. Wrote several letters and turned in a little before midnight.

1908 08040408/04/1908 Ross Marvin

Red Snow

08-03-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
North Star Bay, Greenland
George Wardwell

We left Cape York bay last night at 8 and arrived here at 7 this morning. I saw some red snow on the side of the hill there at Cape York. The Dr. got some of it to look at under his microscope. He said it was a low form of vegetation that grew in the snow. I heard today that Dr. Cook hadnt got back to Etah yet, and Penakpa had gone to look for them as his boy was one of the party. He only took two Eskimos I hear, so I dont think he could have gone very far. The Eskimo have lost 4 since we have been home one girl about 4 years old and a man was drowned. The sledge sliped sideways from a glacier lost dogs and all, one man and one young woman died. The Erik was here when we got here came up past while we where in Cape York. We have as many as 75 dogs now and a number of Eskimos and whale meat on deck so we have a nice smell now. Are making row lock pins today at the forge, and it isnt very sweet out there, but I suppose I will get used to it in time. Joe White that came to Sydney last trip firing on this one came with the cook this year and then got a job with Mr. Whitney on the Erik waiting on his party and keeping clothes and guns clean.

1908 08030308/03/1908 George Wardwell

One more boat load

08-02-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Cape York Bay, Greenland
George Wardwell

It was so nasty yesterday that they didnt all get onboard and havent got them all onboard yet at 6 P.M. One more boat load of stuff. We came in alongside the Glacier at 2.30 to get water. There are a number of large streams running down from the top and all they have to do is to put the hose out there are some large bergs grounded here that have broken off. The Eskimos said they saw the Erik go past yesterday.

1908 08020208/02/1908 George Wardwell

They were very much excited

08-01-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Cape York Bay, Greenland
George Wardwell

1908 08010108/01/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Still going with the wind

07-31-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Cape York, Greenland
George Wardwell

We are still going with the wind on the beam not much of a breeze but the ship is rolling quite a lot. The sun didnt set at all last night and it was quite a sight for a number of the crew & secretaries, they had never seen sunshine all night before. Not many bergs today but what there are large. No sign of the Erik yet. We are off Sabon Islands now.

1908 07313107/31/1908 George Wardwell

First midnight sun

07-30-1908 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Melville Bay, Greenland
George Wardwell

Wind this morning early from the south increasing in force. Set lug sail breakfast time + carried it till after supper. Wind at noon very fresh + considerable sea. Foggy. Passed the outer island (is 73° N. lat. at 2 p.m.) Nearing the Duck Islands. The wind subsided entirely, clouds + fog moved slowly away to the eastward + at 11.-p.m. we passed the Duck Islands, + entered Melville Bay in glorious yellow sunlight lighting numbers of bergs. A little later the first midnight sun.

1908 07303007/30/1908 Robert E. Peary

I will try for a picture

07-29-1908 : Morning
George Wardwell
Disco Island, Greenland
George Wardwell

We were off Disco Island this morning. At 8 oclock the wind went down last night and we made pretty good time and also so far today. There are quite a number of large icebergs floating around now, and I think I will try for a picture of one of them. We are going along about 5 miles off shore, cant see anything of the Erik yet.

1908 07292907/29/1908 George Wardwell

Another dirty night

07-28-1908 : Night
Robert E. Peary
Greenland coast
George Wardwell

Another dirty night though less of a sea than the night before, + of course every night it is getting lighter. Wind has slackened distinctly today + is much smoother. Greenland Coast again visible from noon on. 67° 7'. Crossed the "Circle" soon after midnight.

1908 07282807/28/1908 Robert E. Peary

Just holding our own

07-27-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Greenland coast
George Wardwell

Strong head wind. Thick fog, logging about 3 miles an hour. Thermometer 37. Sighted land about 2 o'clock in neighborhood of Sukkertoppen. Coast very high, mountain peaks sharp and ragged, streaked with snow. Fulmar, kittiwakes, and murres increasing every day. Shot guns given out today. George and Doctor have been busy trading shells all the evening. Roosevelt pitching badly now. Today bow completely buried. At times we are just holding our own. Crossing the Arctic Circle this evening.

1908 07272707/27/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Staightening out the matter of post-cards

07-26-1908 : Afternoon
Ross Marvin
Greenland coast
George Wardwell

A moderate fog came on soon after mid-night and if anything is thicker today. We are steaming along rather slowly, directly North and are near enough that we could see the Greenland Coast if it were not for the fog. Today is Sunday and so I don't expect to have much work to do. Last time I was busy every Sunday for several month's going North. Spent most of the morning in straightening out the matter of post-cards, and I think I addressed fully one hundred before I finally finished. I don't believe I have forgotten many of my friends. Last trip we had it foggy coming across and clear sailing up the Greenland Coast, this time it is just the opposite. Made out a list of things I want mother to do for me but have not yet gotten down to writing letters. Have finished up the early part of my diary and expect to write every day now. The Captain and I spent many odd minutes each day in relating our experiences since our last trip. We have considerable head wind and a little sea this afternoon. I just begin to feel rested up + to feel like doing a full days work each day. Life on the water is the life for me.

1908 07262607/26/1908 Ross Marvin

Maynard's birthday

07-26-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Greenland coast
George Wardwell

Maynards birthday. He is getting to be quite a boy large enough to have quite a garden of his own. The Erik is out of sight behind I think as it is foggy and can't see very far. Have a head wind today but are going along pretty well I think we are in 63.43. today.

1908 072626b07/26/1908 George Wardwell

Erik on our port bow

07-25-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Labrador Sea
George Wardwell

Another fine day. The night clear + calm. During forenoon + until middle of afternoon light W.ly breeze + a long swell from the west has rolled us a good deal. The wind swung to N.E. + the well subsides some. In morning Erik on our port bow, then full astern. Tonight she is farther behind than at any time. Stop for about 1.2 hour last night to repair feed pump. Work at stowing + overhauling continued today. Barom. + thermometer both steady.

1908 07252507/25/1908 Robert E. Peary

Smooth sea + no roll

07-24-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Labrador Sea
George Wardwell

Out and around before breakfast this morning. The beginning of a lovely day. Did a little work in our room, then opened a case of mine to dry out on the deck house. They had been rained on. A lovely clear day, smooth sea + no roll so that they could be spread out. Later rigged up a shelf in the Commander's room to hold the barograph. This took my time until after dinner. The Erik astern of us most of the day. We seem to keep pretty well together however. Patched up a chart for the Captain and helped him on his navigation some. MacMillan + Borup keep busy restoring the Commander's outfit and that gives me much more time than last trip. I am much slower in getting settled however as I was late getting on in Sydney + rooming with the Captain also makes a difference. Soon after supper it became cloudy and by 8 oclock it was raining but only for a few moments. The dark overcast sky means another night but there will not be many more of them now for several months. We do not expect to stop until we reach Cape York.

1908 07242407/24/1908 Ross Marvin

Lots of floating ice

07-23-1908 : Morning
George Wardwell
Turnavik, Newfoundland
George Wardwell

We arrived at Turnivik last night at 8.30. That is where the Capts. Father is fishing. His two Brothers and Father were onboard besides lots of other men. We got a head wind & rain just before we got in there and it blew all night and is quite rough today with head wind. Left there at 4. A.M. The Erik went in and left with us. She goes along about the same as we do sometimes ahead and sometimes behind, we are running through lots of floating ice today which we didnt see last time as we were over further to the East, and were a week later.

1908 07232307/23/1908 George Wardwell

Not cold at all

07-22-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Newfoundland coast
George Wardwell

When we awoke this morning the Erik was far out a sea going outside of the "Bull Dog" rocks. Have been at work nearly all day piling up condensed milk cases. After we were through George and I went aft and had a good bath, finishing up by throwing buckets of salt water at each other, not cold at all altho there are about thirty ice bergs in sight. About seven o'clock this evening we had a squall off the land. Had some bother getting down sails as ropes were stiff. Have had everything on today. Raining and blowing now from North East. The Erik far astern.

1908 07222207/22/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Ran slow all night

07-21-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Hawkes Harbor, Newfoundland
George Wardwell

Left Antels Harbor at 8.30 last night and arrived here at Hawks Harbor at 7.30 this morning. Ran slow all night so as to have daylight to come in with. The Erik is here. She is to take the whale meat here, we are not taking any on here. There are a number of Snowbanks along the shores here also. The fishermen here say they are not getting many fish here. Mr. Whitney and his party are up the bay gunning. The Yacht Wakiva was in here awhile this morning and a party from her were onboard, they are going up into Hudson bay apiece if they can get past the ice. The Capt. told me they were up to Spitzbergen last summer went up to 78.20 No. Latitude.

1908 07212107/21/1908 George Wardwell

Passed our first iceberg

07-20-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Battle Harbor, Newfoundland
George Wardwell

Turned out after we had already headed into the whaling station at Cape St. Charles. There is still some doubt about the Erik getting enough whale meat at Hawkes Harbor so we have come in here for some. Passed our first iceberg, grounded near the entrance into the harbor. After breakfast went in the whale boat with the Captain and we rowed to the telegraph station at Battle Harbor. Met several old friends there. There are several young college fellows there for the summer with Dr. Grenfell. Saw Dr. Grieves but did not see "My Good Lady." Sister Bailey showed us through the hospital which had been much improved since we were here. Had tea, bread +jam with Mr. Lewis. After dinner went ashore to tally the whale meat. We have taken on over 8 tons here. Mr. Lewis + Dr. Grieves both came over during the afternoon. Finished loading after supper and got away just before dark. The whale meat is loaded on the quarter deck right in the front of our door and the Captains. Posted short letters to Mother + to Mr. Bement and also several post-cards.

1908 07202007/20/1908 Ross Marvin

All the papers will have it

07-19-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Newfoundland coast
George Wardwell

It was foggy all night but cleared off about 9 this morning and has been fine all day. Have seen land all day and yesterday also N.F.L.D. Made the Canadian shore about six and sent a Telegraph ashore so I suppose all the papers will have it in the morning. We are making better time than we did before and haven't had any trouble yet and hope we wont for we had enough last trip to last a good while.

1908 07191907/19/1908 George Wardwell

Waist awash nearly all day

07-18-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
Gulf of St. Lawrence
George Wardwell

Moon rose about midnight light very early. S.ly wind still continues veering east a little. Steamed nearly due N- all night. Rolling a bit this forenoon in strong tide rift at Cabot Strait. Brilliant sunshine, clouding later, with southeast wind + rain. Pass C. Anguille in forenoon. Pass Lion (?) Island + C. St. George middle of afternoon. Wind off shore + fresh. Set fore staysail, jib + main topmast staysail. Raining quite hard by evening. Running about 10K. Last time we passed C. St. George we were having a hard time. Foreyard slung, ready to bend lug sail. Carpenter begins work on crushed boat. Waist awash nearly all day. Clearing decks + lashing cargo. With no letters or telegrams to receive or send am somewhat at a loss. Looking over miscellaneous gifts (bibles, cards, liquors, etc.) stowing my room, trying new music.

1908 07181807/18/1908 Robert E. Peary

Course laid

07-17-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
Nova Scotia coast
George Wardwell

The Roosevelt came to dock at Sydney from the coal pier about 6-30 this morning. Put aboard the last freight and suit cases from the hotel. Left for North Sydney about 11, with Mr. + Mrs. Grosevenor are aboard. Commander Peary and family, Marvin, Borup came over on 3-30 ferry arriving at No. Sydney 4-15. Tried to get underway at once but were fast on bottom. In swinging back toward the dock, smashed boat on starboard side, midships beyond repair. A tug accompanied us down to Low Point to bring back Mrs. Peary, Mrs. Chase, Marie, Robert, Col. Borup and Mrs. Warren. Sent letters by Marie. Weather clear as a bell, wind fair. Course laid for New Foundland.

1908 07171707/17/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Last days work in Sydney

07-16-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Nova Scotia coast
George Wardwell

Had another early breakfast to begin our last days work in Sydney. Wrote a letter to Mr. Bridgeman directing him to pay Mother $50 a month until I return. Mrs. Peary is not going to handle that money this time. The Roosevelt came up to the wharf early in the morning and then went over to N. Sydney about ten A.M. The Com. told me he wanted me to remain at the hotel with him until the Captain telephones that he is already to sail. Closed up a few final purchases for the Com. and made a few for myself. Received a book written by local talent from the book store man. Left Sydney on the 3.30 ferry boarded the Roosevelt + got under way. Stuck on the ground at low tide + smashed a whale boat in getting off. A Good Omen for our future adventures. Mrs. Peary + party went out as far as Low Point. Left the dock at 4.35 sailing on a Friday. The Roosevelt is in much better shape and the Expedition is much better fitted out than we were last time, and we had nothing to complain of then. Turning in for my first nights sleep on the Roosevelt.

1908 07161607/16/1908 Ross Marvin

An awful mess

07-15-1908 : Morning
George Wardwell
Sydney, Nova Scotia
George Wardwell

Came down to coal dock this morning and it is raining and making an awful mess.

1908 07151507/15/1908 George Wardwell

Made fast

07-14-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
Sydney, Nova Scotia
George Wardwell

The Roosevelt was sighted off Low Point soon after noon. Came into Sydney Harbor and made fast to a wharf about 4 P.M. remaining there over night.

1908 07141407/14/1908 Ross Marvin

Foggy & cool

07-13-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Maine coast
George Wardwell

It has been foggy & cool all night and all day fair wind and are making pretty good time.

1908 07131307/13/1908 George Wardwell

Came in foggy

07-12-1908 : Evening
George Wardwell
Seal Rock, ME
George Wardwell

We made Seal rock light last night at 10. Came in foggy soon after and lasted until 2 this morning. Have been making 9 knots all day have run through a few banks of fog. We have a good wholesail breeze and are skipping right along. Foggy but not very thick at one P.M.

1908 07121207/12/1908 George Wardwell

Eagle Island

07-11-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Eagle Island, ME
George Wardwell

We went into eagle island last night and got our spare rudder. Left again at 10 oclock and have been making good time. Sails all set.

1908 07111107/11/1908 George Wardwell

Nearly off Portland

07-10-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
Portland, ME
George Wardwell

We have been going along pretty well since we left New Bedford. Mr Harry Whitney of New York is onboard he is going on the Erik for a hunting trip. Marie, Robert & Mrs Chase are also onboard. We must be nearly off Portland now, I saw one of the large boats bound in I think it is the State of Maine.

1908 07101007/10/1908 George Wardwell

Next stop Sydney

07-10-1908 : Night
Ross Marvin
Ithaca, NY
George Wardwell

The Roosevelt did not proceed direct to Sydney as was expected but instead ran up to Portland Maine to stop at Eagle Island. Ran in soon after noon and remained there several hours leaving about 10 P.M. Next stop to be Sydney.

1908 071010b07/10/1908 Ross Marvin

My trunk and box of books

07-09-1908 : Morning
Ross Marvin
Ithaca, NY
George Wardwell

The Roosevelt left New Bedford rather early in the morning and my trunk and box of books did not get on board. Harry Whitney the Captain's old friend, and one of the summer party of the Erik is on board the Roosevelt from N.Y. to Sydney, in the cabin with the Captain.

1908 070909b07/09/1908 Ross Marvin

Pumps and valves

07-09-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Massachusetts
George Wardwell

We arrived at New Bedford about 8 this morning got our boats and left at eleven. I didn't have time to write, we anchored outside and I worked about all night on pumps and valves.

1908 07090907/09/1908 George Wardwell

Going along pretty well

07-08-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
New York
George Wardwell

2. P.M. there is a nice breeze and they have the sails set and we are going along pretty well, we are all about sick today from the heat last night working down below but if it had happened in N.Y. I dont think we could have stood it, for there were one hundred people prostrated in New York City the day we left.

1908 07080807/08/1908 George Wardwell

A man from Maine...

07-07-1908 : Afternoon
George Wardwell
New York
George Wardwell

Left Hemstead bay at 8 oclock for Oyster bay. Got there at eleven.The President came onboard at 3.20 shook hands with everyone onboard.Mr. Bridgeman and the Commander both introduced me to him as a man fromMaine. He said he was very pleased to meet a man from Maine. He saidhunting the North Pole was good business said he would like to go alongtoo. We left there at 4. P.M. and at 7.30 the air pump broke and weworked all night and got under way about 8 this morning. She is goingfine now.

1908 07070707/07/1908 George Wardwell

Leaving New York

07-06-1908 : Night
George Wardwell
Hempstead Bay, NY
George Wardwell

S.S. Roosevelt left New York at 1. P.M. Thousands of people at 24st pier to see her off. All steamers and factorys blowing whistles others firing guns and saluting with flags, lots of people went down to City Island and came back on the Navy tug. They were alongside all the way down. After they left we went out to adjust compasses and then went to Hemstead [sic] Bay for the night.

1908 07060607/06/1908 George Wardwell

Did things with a rush

07-05-1908 : Morning
Ross Marvin
Ithaca, NY
George Wardwell

Spent Sunday in Ithaca getting packed up. Brother Will came over in the morning + is going to stay and help me get things ready. Telephoned home but had no mail and so I telephoned to Com. Peary. Roosevelt leaves N.Y. tomorrow + stops at Oyster Bay Tues. so I will remain here tomorrow + then run down to Oyster Bay, back home again + go in the ship at Sydney. Did things with a rush Sunday evening. Called on Susie until after nine, Carol until after eleven, and then Ruth until nearly two. I am surprised at myself.

1908 07050507/05/1908 Ross Marvin

Christmas Candy

07-04-1908 : Evening
Robert E. Peary
New York, NY
George Wardwell

When the time came for the Roosevelt to sail, we had absolutely everything which we needed in the way of equipment, including boxes of Christmas candy, one for every man on board, a gift of Mrs. Peary. -- From Robert E. Peary's The North Pole, 1910.

1908 07040407/04/1908 Robert E. Peary

Last effort for the Pole

07-03-1908 : Afternoon
Donald B. MacMillan
New York, NY
George Wardwell

She [the S.S. Roosevelt] now lay, in July 1908, at the Recreation Pier at the foot of East Twenty-Third Street, preparing to set out on what must certainly be her commander's last effort for the Pole. Repeated failures had only spurred him on to perfect his plans, his equipment, his personnel. His years of experience were now to have their due reward. -- From Donald MacMillan's How Peary Reached the Pole, 1934.

1908 07030307/03/1908 Donald B. MacMillan

Last minute addition

07-02-1908 : Evening
Ross Marvin
New York, NY
George Wardwell

Arrived in the city on the morning of the 2nd and went aboard the Roosevelt where I soon found the skipper. I learned that the party was now complete but that the Commander was in the city and so I went to see him. Got an appointment for three P.M. and came back to the Roosevelt to look her over a little. Saw the Commander at three and learned that had tried to locate me but had given up and secured another man in my place. He seemed pleased to see me and glad to know that I was willing to go again. Three years ago I saw him on July 3rd and he said to me "Mr. Marvin, in what way do you think you could be of value to this expedition." This time I saw him on July 2nd, three years later, and he said "Marvin this expedition needs you and we have got to find a place for you." He was very busy and wanted to see me when he had more time to think and talk and so I told him I would come again in the evening. Went over to Brooklyn + back and then had a chat with the Com. for over an hour in his room. Everything is lovely.

1908 07020207/02/1908 Ross Marvin

A veritable curiosity shop...

07-01-1908 : Evening
Donald B. MacMillan
New York, NY
George Wardwell

His [Peary's] room at the Grand Union was a veritable curiosity shop - sledge-stoves of every conceivable pattern, designed for economy of fuel, lightness, strength, compactness, samples of dog traces, webbing for harnesses, wood for sledges, thermometers, instruments of precision, clothing, and on and on, ad infinitum. He was plainly tired of it and wanted to leave as soon as possible for his little island home, Eagle Island, on the Maine Coast.

1908 07010107/01/1908 Donald B. MacMillan