Anne McBride

Associate Professor of Biology and Biochemistry

Teaching this semester

BIOL 1101. Biological Principles I

The first in a two-semester introductory biology sequence. Topics include fundamental principles of cellular and molecular biology with an emphasis on providing a problem-solving approach to an understanding of genes, RNA, proteins, and cell structure and communication. Focuses on developing quantitative skills, as well as critical thinking and problem solving skills. Lecture and weekly laboratory/discussion groups. To ensure proper placement, students must take the biology placement examination and must be recommended for placement in Biology 1101. Students continuing in biology will take Biology 1102 , not Biology 1109 , as their next biology course.

BIOL 2557. Immunology

Covers the development of the immune response, the cell biology of the immune system, the nature of antigens, antibodies, B and T cells, and the complement system. The nature of natural immunity, transplantation immunology, and tumor immunology also considered.

Candida albicans is a microscopic fungus that lives in human hosts. Although the presence of Candida cells does not affect the health of most human hosts, if the host’s immune system is compromised, C. albicans can cause a range of human diseases, from non-life threatening vaginal or oral infections to severe bloodstream and internal organ infections that are often fatal. The ability of C. albicans to switch growth forms between circular yeast cells and elongated hyphal cells is required for virulence in animal models, indicating the importance of studying all mechanisms involved in these transitions.

Hyphal cells form by directional growth at one end of a “mother” cell and hyphae contain a specific set of proteins required for invading host cells and tissues. Different models can explain how such proteins are found where they need to function. For example, some proteins may be made in the mother cell and then transported long distances into the hypha. A more efficient possibility, however, is that a messenger RNAs (mRNA) that contains the code that directs synthesis of a hyphal protein could be moved from the mother cell into the hypha, allowing local synthesis of multiple copies of the protein from a single mRNA, precisely where the protein is needed in the cell. Our long-term goal is therefore to understand how mRNAs are transported in C. albicans hyphae and how localized protein synthesis affects hyphal growth, function and virulence.

Our work focuses on an RNA-binding protein named Slr1, which is important for proper hyphal formation and which accelerates disease progression in an animal model of bloodstream infection. The objectives of current projects in the lab are: 1) to test whether Slr1 cooperates with a protein known to transport mRNAs to the hypha and 2) to identify new proteins involved in hyphal mRNA transport that affect C. albicans hyphal formation and function. 

Our research is supported by a Research Training Faculty grant through Maine INBRE (IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence, which is in turn supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences).

Spring Break 2018 MDIBL Research Field Trip Information

What is it?

This Spring Break, Prof. McBride will be offering a week-long research experience for up to 12 Bowdoin students at the Mount Desert Island Biology Laboratory (MDIBL) in Salisbury Cove, Maine.  Students will collaborate with Prof. McBride on research to understand mechanisms of mRNA transport in the medically relevant yeast Candida albicans and will be introduced to techniques such as protein purification, quantitative PCR and bioinformatics.  We’ll also find some time to visit Bar Harbor or Acadia National Park just down the road from the lab.

When is it?

We will drive from Bowdoin to Mount Desert Island leaving at noon on Saturday, March 17 and return to campus on Friday, March 23.  To allow flexibility in travel planning, members of the research team can arrive at Bowdoin either on Saturday morning or on Friday, March 16.

Is it really free?

Yes!  All expenses will be paid, including travel between Brunswick and Mount Desert Island, research supplies, and room and board. 

Who may participate?

This opportunity is open to all students who have taken either a 2000-level biology or biochemistry course, with preference given to students who have taken (or are taking in Spring semester 2018) a cell/molecular level biology or biochemistry class (i.e. Genetics and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochemistry of Cellular Processes, Neurobiology, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Fundamentals of Biochemistry).

What are the relevant deadlines for participation?

All students who are interested in this trip should contact Prof. McBride by email before Thanksgiving Break. Please include a list of ≥2000-level biology and/or Biochemistry courses you have taken and are requesting/registered for in Spring 2018. 

Prof. McBride will email all interested students with more details before winter break.

Students invited to join the research team will be asked to confirm their participation by the end of the first week of classes in January.  Students on the wait list will be informed of their status at the end of that week.

If you have any questions, contact Prof. McBride by email:

Recent Publications

McBride AE (2017) Messenger RNA transport in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicansCurr Genet. doi: 10.1007/s00294-017-0707-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Ariyachet C*, Beißel C, Li X*, Lorrey S*, Mackenzie O*, Martin PM*, O'Brien K*, Pholcharee T*, Sim S*, Krebber H, McBride AE. (2017) Post-translational modification directs nuclear and hyphal tip localization of Candida albicans mRNA-binding protein Slr1. Mol Microbiol. 104(3):499-519.

Ariyachet C*, Solis NV, Liu Y, Prasadarao NV, Filler SG, McBride AE. (2013) SR-like RNA-binding protein Slr1 affects Candida albicans filamentation and virulence. Infect Immun. 81(4):1267-76.

Young BD, Weiss DI, Zurita-Lopez CI, Webb KJ, Clarke SG, McBride AE. (2012) "Identification of methylated proteins in the yeast small ribosomal subunit: a role for SPOUT methyltransferases in protein arginine methylation."  Biochemistry. 51(25):5091-104. 

McBride AE, Conboy AK*, Brown SP*, Ariyachet C*, Rutledge KL. (2009) "Specific sequences within arginine-glycine-rich domains affect mRNA-binding protein function." Nucleic Acids Res. 37(13):4322-30. 

McBride, AE, Zurita-Lopez, C, Regis, A, Blum, E, Conboy, A*, Elf, S* and Clarke, S (2007) “Protein arginine methylation in Candida albicans: role in nuclear transport.Eukaryot Cell. 6(7): 1119-29. 

McBride, AE (2006) "Diverse roles of protein arginine methyltransferases” in “Protein Methyltransferases" The Enzymes Vol. XXIV, ed. S. Clarke and F. Tamanoi, Academic Press, pp. 51-103.

McBride AE, Cook JT*, Stemmler EA, Rutledge KL, McGrath KA* and Rubens JA* (2005) "Arginine methylation of yeast mRNA-binding protein Npl3 directly affects its function, nuclear export, and intranuclear protein interactions." J Biol Chem 280(35):30888-98.

Yu MC, Bachand F, McBride AE, Komili S, Casolari JM and Silver PA (2004) "Arginine methyltransferase affects interactions and recruitment of mRNA processing and export factors." Genes Dev 18(16):2024-35.

*Bowdoin students

Student Research


Allison Carroll

Does mRNA overexpression affect protein location in Candida albicans?
(Summer 2016)

Samuel Eley

Determining the effects of RNA-binding on the localization and protein-protein interactions of the Candida albicans protein Slr1
(Summer 2014-Spring 2015)

Amanda Estes

Investigation of the localization and phenotypic effects of She3 mRNA transport protein in Candida albicans
(Summer 2014)

Selena Lorrey

RNA-binding protein localization in Candida albicans ​during stress
(Fall 2015-Spring 2016)

Kate Paulsen

Study of the interactions between RNA-binding proteins She3 and Slr1 in pathogenic fungus Candida albicans
(Summer 2015, Summer 2016-Spring 2017)

Tossapol (Poy) Pholcharee

Identifying RNA-transport proteins in pathogenic fungus Candida albicans
(Summer 2015, Summer 2016)

Investigating localization and interactions of two SR-like RNA-binding proteins in Candida albicans
(Spring, 2016)

Sue Sim

Testing effects of phosphorylation on RNA-binding protein localization in Candida albicans
(Summer 2015-Spring 2016)

Determination of binding sites between She3 and Myo2 in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans
(Summer 2014)

Jordan Voisine

Mapping of She3-She3 binding interactions in Candida albicans
(Summer 2014)

Testing the localization of an RNA-binding protein after self-association site disruption in Candida albicans
(Fall 2014-Spring 2015)


Patrick Breen

Investigating modification of an RNA-binding protein in pathogenic yeast using mass spectrometry
(Summer 2012-Spring 2013)

Samuel Burnim

Identification of mRNA Transport Protein Complexes in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans
(Summer 2013-Spring 2014)

Xiang (Aveline) Li

Effect of protein modification on location of an RNA-binding protein in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans
(Summer 2013-Spring 2014)

Role of mRNA localization in protein location in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans
(Summer 2012)

Patrick Martin

Investigating interactions between mRNA-binding protein Slr1 and She3 in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans
(Summer 2012-Spring 2013)

Olivia Mackenzie

Investigating the localization of mRNA binding protein Slr1 in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans
(Summer 2012, Spring 2013)

Katharine O’Brien

Investigating the subcellular localization of Slr1 in Candida albicans filaments
(Fall 2011-Spring 2012)

Audrey Zott

Investigating dependence of protein localization on mRNA transport in pathogenic yeast C. albicans
(Summer 2012, Summer 2013-Spring 2014)


Chaiyaboot (Tee) Ariyachet

Posttranslational modification of a novel arginine/glycine rich protein in Candida albicans
(Summer 2009)

Testing localization of orf19.1750 protein in Candida albicans
(Spring 2009)

Testing roles of RNA-binding protein Orf19.1750 in pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export
(Fall 2009-Summer 2010)

Chris Carlin

Investigation of a putative arginine demethylase in the opportunistic commensal Candida albicans 
(Summer 2008-Spring 2009)

Elisa Kim

Probing function of Orf19.216 protein in Candida albicans
(Spring 2010)

Hayley McHugh

Candida albicans Orf19.216 protein and its relationship with fluconazole resistance 
(Summer 2008-Spring 2009)

Yasmine White

Identification of putative arginine methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae and associated phenotypes
(Spring 2009)


Chaiyaboot (Tee) Ariyachet

Analysis of exoribonuclease Kem1 localization in Candida albicans
(Summer 2007)

Testing the function of the putative docking motif in the localization of Npl3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(Spring 2008)

Exploring the function of hydrophobic residues in the arginine-glycine-rich (RG) domain of the RNA-binding protein Npl3
(Summer 2008) 

Lincoln Pac

Exploring the role of delta-nitrogen arginine methylation in yeast translation
(Fall 2007-Spring 2008)

Anthony Regis

Exploring the RNA-binding protein Npl3 and exoribonuclease Kem1: Intracellular localization and arginine methylation in Candida albicans
(Summer 2006-Spring 2007)

Alex Wilkinson

Identification of a methylated protein in Candida albicans
(Summer 2006, Summer 2007-Spring 2008)


Charlie Johnson

Insertion of an HA tag in HRP1 and THP2: investigation of protein-protein interactions.
(Fall 2005)

Kelly McGrath

Mutational analysis of an arginine-rich RNA-binding protein
(Summer 2004)
Effects of Arginine Methylation on Intranuclear Protein Interactions of RNA-Binding Proteins
(Fall 2005-Spring 2006)

Hilarie Wilson

Mapping sites of protein methylation by immunoblot analysis
(Summer 2004)


Emily Blum

Phenotypic analysis of an arginine methyltransferase (HMT1) deletion in Candida albicans
(Spring 2003-Spring 2004)

Shanique Brown

Investigating the effects of domain deletions on the multimerization of Npl3p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(Fall 2003-Spring 2004)

Jeff Cook

Arginine methylation of an RNA-binding protein
(Summer 2002, Spring 2003-Spring 2004)

Ana Conboy

Testing function of arginine-rich domains in baker's yeast
(Summer 2003)

Jeffrey Rubens

Genetic studies of the relationship between arginine methylation and RNA-binding protein function in yeast
(Fall 2002-Spring 2003)

Caroline Agusti

Analysis of the importance of protein arginine methylation in a fungal pathogen
(Fall 2002)

Shannon Elf

Arginine methyltransferase function in Candida albicans
(Summer 2002)


Michael Leibowitz

Analysis of interactions between an arginine methyltransferase and glycogen synthase kinase-3 family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(Fall 2001-Spring 2002)

Tessie Ng

Structural and functional comparison of nuclear transport factors in yeast
(Fall 2001-Spring 2002)

Kathryn Penney

Genetic analysis of the role of Rmt2, a novel arginine methyltransferase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(Fall 2001-Spring 2002)

a protein containing rmt2


Useful resources on the www

Bowdoin sites

Biology Honors Requirements

Candida albicans sites

Candida DB (Pasteur Institute)

Candida genome database (Stanford University)

Berman laboratory website (University of Minnesota)

Institute for Candida Experimentation (ICE, University of Minnesota)

Early Stanford Candida albicans genome webpage

Saccharomyces cerevisiae sites

Saccharomyces Genome Database

General tools for molecular biology

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National LIbrary of Medicine (National Insititutes of Health) homepage

Literature search engine

PubMed (NCBI)

Sequence analysis tools

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) site (NCBI)

Baylor College of Medicine Search Launcher

ExPASy (Expert protein analysis system) Molecular Biology Server

MS-Digest at ProteinProspector (UCSF Mass Spectrometry site)

ProteinProspector homepage (UCSF Mass Spectrometry site)

"Vaccination and the Fight against Infectious Disease"
Slides from a talk to the Association of Bowdoin Friends on Thursday, February 6, 2003.

Boulder beauty