The Instruments

The Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ and IBQ-R)

The original IBQ was developed by Dr. Rothbart in the early 1980s and first reported in the 1981 Child Development article, "Measurement of Temperament in Infancy" (Rothbart, 1981).This early form of the instrument assessed 6 domains of infant temperament (activity level, soothability, fear, distress to limitations, smiling and laughter, and duration of orienting).The items on the IBQ ask parents to rate the frequency of specific temperament-related behaviors observed over the past week (or sometimes 2 weeks).

In 1998, Dr. Rothbart and her colleague, Dr. Masha Gartstein, revised the IBQ by refining the original scales and adding several new scales. The new instrument is referred to as the IBQ-Revised (IBQ-R). Short (91 items; 14 scales) and Very Short (36 items; 3 broad scales) forms of the IBQ-R were developed by Sam Putnam and colleagues in 2008.


The following non-English versions of the IBQ-R are available for download:


The Questionnaire

The IBQ and IBQ-R have been designed to measure temperament in infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months.? The IBQ-R assesses the following dimensions of temperament:

For questions regarding the IBQ or IBQ-R, contact Masha Gartstein at (postal mail: Department of Psychology, Washington State University, PO Box 644820, Pullman, WA 99164-4820)

Please note that these questionnaires are to be used for research purposes only. If you are interested in acquiring current versions of these instruments, we request that you first complete our request form, providing us with a brief description of your plans for use of the measures. Following the completion of your research, we request that you contact us to inform us of the results of your project as they relate to the temperament scales.In this way, we hope to coordinate attempts at validation of the scales.


Rothbart, M. K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52, 569-578. (PDF Document)
Gartstein, M. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2003). Studying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development, 26 (1), 64-86. (PDF Document)
Putnam, S. P., Helbig, A. L., Gartstein, M. A., Rothbart, M. K. & Leerkes, E. (2014). Development and Assessment of Short and Very Short Forms of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 445-458. (PDF Document)