Footnote citations: Each time you quote a work by another author, or
use the ideas of another author, you should indicate the source with a
footnote. A footnote is indicated in the text of your paper by a small
arabic numeral written in superscript, directly following the borrowed
material. Each new footnote gets a new number (increment by one); do not
repeat a footnote number you've already used, even if the earlier reference
is to the same work. The number refers to a note number at the bottom
of the page (or following the text of the paper, if you are using endnotes).
This note contains the citation information for the materials you are
referencing. Do not use parenthetical or other citation formats. The citation
format you should use for history papers is called Chicago style. The
writing guides listed later in this guide will show you how to cite sources
using Chicago style.
Citation formats: While there are standard principles for citing different kinds of sources, each requires its own unique citation format. Thus, a book will be cited differently than will a journal article. Your style manuals (Rampolla and Turabian) explain the differences in these formats. Also, Chicago style requires one way of citing sources in footnotes, and another way for citing sources in your bibliography. (A bibliography is a list of sources you consulted in your research, which appears at the end of your paper.) Consult your style manuals (Rampolla and Turabian) for the differences in citation formats, and pay close attention to the way you format footnotes and bibliographies in your paper.
Quoting sources in your paper: Most often, you should paraphrase materials from other authors, making sure to cite your sources with a footnote. Sometimes, when the original words of another seem particularly poignant or important, you will want to present those words directly to your reader. There are many rules of quoting material, which can be found in the resources listed at the end of this sheet. Here are some basic rules to get you started:
Avoiding plagiarism: The best way to avoid unintentional plagiarism is
to take complete and accurate notes, and to cite your sources properly.
When taking notes, clearly indicate whether you are paraphrasing a source
or quoting it directly. Be sure to include a complete bibliographic citation
of the source, so you can create an accurate footnote later. When writing,
include a footnote citation for every idea or quotation you use from another
Common writing errors to study and avoid (consult Diana Hacker, Rules for Writers):
Three books you should own:
Online guides for citing sources:
For more information: The principles mentioned here are discussed in greater detail in my online writing guides: "Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for College Students" <http://academic.bowdoin.edu/WritingGuides/>.