2018 Golz Fellowship Winners

In its fourth year, the Golz fellowship has awarded three students funding to pursue opportunities related to the field. Alfred E. Golz fellowships support research opportunities and internships for History majors and minors during the summer months. These fellowships have been made possible by a generous gift from Ronald Golz ’56 in memory of his father.

2018 Golz Fellow Charlotte Youkilis '20

This summer, I produced a short, documentary film that traced the history of soul food in Harlem, New York. I conducted a series of filmed interviews with establishment owners and workers, as well as professors and historians in the fields of History and African American Studies. The final edit of the film has a fifteen minute runtime and features four interviewees and b-roll footage that I shot. In addition to this, the film includes historical footage of Harlem.

Making this film involved three stages. In the initial stage, I spent the majority of my time researching. I focused on books, articles, and podcasts that related to soul food, Harlem, and the historical migration of blacks from the south to the north. This included reaching out to a number of potential interviewees in order to schedule filmed interviews. I contacted around ten individuals involved with restaurants in Harlem, anywhere from owners to chefs and hosts. In addition to this, I intended to include three historians in the film. The remainder of this pre-production stage included more research and preparing interview questions for those who agreed to participate in the film. I also spent a portion of this time at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, which has a moving image and recorded sound division. This is where I acquired the historical footage used throughout the film. During the production stage, I shot all of the actual interview footage and b-roll footage, which is supplemental footage. I traveled to Fordham University to interview Dr. Mark Naison, Professor of History and African American Studies. I then traveled to Babson College in Boston to interview Dr. Frederick Opie, Professor of History and Foodways. Dr. Opie has also written and researched extensively on the history and migration of soul food from the south to the north. The next section of production involved Harlem today. Restaurants like Sylvia’s, Amy Ruth’s, and Melba’s, all of which have deep histories and serve as communal spaces in Harlem, became the focus of my research. While some owners and chefs chose not to be on camera, most willingly participated in filmed interviews.

Ultimately, I pieced together footage from all of these interviews, interspersed with b-roll and historical footage and photographs. The film traces the history of soul food back to slavery and considers the role of food in black migration to northern cities. The film also looks at Harlem and the ways in which food and restaurants helped create economic opportunity for the neighborhood. Lastly, it examines the role of eateries and similar establishments in Harlem as communal gathering spaces.

2018 Golz Fellow Noah Keates '20

This summer I had the opportunity to spend two months at Bowdoin working on a historical fiction screenplay called Pro Caelio, which tells the story of Marcus Caelius, a young lawyer living in the ancient Roman republic who has been accused of several violent crimes against his political rivals. Screenwriting is currently a career avenue I am exploring, so having the time to test out what it’s like to be a full-time screenwriter was amazing. With the guidance of my advisor, Bowdoin classics professor, Michael Nerdahl, I completed a full feature-length draft of my screenplay, which I plan to edit and revise through the Fall semester.

I found the independent writing process a very unique experience. Self-scheduling my work throughout the summer was certainly a more difficult task than I had anticipated, and I found my creative writing process in general impossible to approach as a conventional academic project. I found I had random spikes of creative energy complimented by drastic lulls in inspiration, so my writing process became an interesting game of capitalizing on those creative moments while not forcing words out when I was bereft of ideas and writing energy.

In terms of the actual content of my screenplay, I also found my approach changing throughout the summer. While I had planned to organize and sketch out all of the big themes and research of my screenplay before I began writing, I instead found themes and research questions presenting themselves naturally as my story progressed. What began as a story about the political hypocrisy of the Roman republic became a story more about historical truth and the dangers of accepting any singular historical narrative as objective fact.

I hope I will find the means at some point to produce Pro Caelio into a feature-length film, but I am also excited to present my screenplay as a written work that serves as a commentary on how we address historical truth in academia and elsewhere.

2018 Golz Fellow Artur Kalandarov '20

This summer, I interned at the Center on National Security (CNS) at Fordham Law School in New York City. I contributed to a number of different projects and certainly learned a great deal about research, think tanks, recent American history, and conflicts in Eastern Europe. I had the opportunity to work with a team of researchers, as well as attorneys, journalists, and former intelligence officials. My summer work centered around two different topics: the U.S. response to terrorism since 9/11 up to the present day, and the history of the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia. For the former, the director of CNS, Karen Greenberg, is nationally recognized as an expert on the changes in government policy that occurred as a result of the September 11th attacks. She has written several history books on the subject, and frequently writes articles about updates in the trials of accused terrorists and other developments in governmental policy. Throughout the summer, I had to prepare background reports and briefs on the latest developments surrounding detainees at Guantanamo Bay, and changes in U.S foreign policy that affected the detainment and prosecution of terror suspects. Dr.Greenberg is currently writing a long article on the history of modern terrorism warfare during the Bush and Obama presidencies which will be published in an edited compilation. I had to read numerous articles and several books in order to find information she had requested and fact check some details she wanted to put in her first draft. On another occasion, I spent several days researching the child separation at the border, as Dr.Greenberg worked on an article drawing comparisons between the policy and her research into the breakdown of caution inside the American security apparatus. Engaging with a prominent historian in this manner was a great experience that allowed me to put the research skills I’ve learned at Bowdoin to the test, and I learned a lot from the experience.

Besides the smaller assignments I have described, the summer-long project I had was to research the history of the current conflict in Ukraine, and by extension the strained U.S./E.U. relationship with Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Center is holding a conference on the conflict in October, so I was tasked with writing the brief that would be handed out during the event. While other interns and staff joined in the process later on, I’m glad I had the opportunity to create a structure for the brief and write significant portions of the report on my own. I wrote about proxy wars in Asia and Eastern Europe that bore resemblance to the current conflict, how past administrations have dealt with Russian aggression, how Putin framed the annexation of Crimea to the Russian people, the history of Ukraine’s relationship with the West, corruption and revolution in Ukraine, etc. Furthermore, I created a recommended reading list consisting of books and articles on the conflict, as well as a comprehensive timeline that detailed Ukraine’s relationship with Russia since the 1400s (the timeline will be shown at the President’s Research Symposium during Parent’s Weekend). The report was completed by the time I left, and I had the opportunity to revise my work with feedback from staff. I improved my abilities and learned a great deal of new information about several different fields of history. Beyond this, however, I also established connections with people who do this type of research for a living, and as I seek to continue this work in the future, I know I can rely upon the Center on National Security’s staff for guidance. I am very grateful for the History Department and the Golz Fellowship for allowing me to undertake this endeavour.

2017 Golz Fellow Harry DiPrinzio '18

My research this summer focused on the history and operation of farming programs in Maine correctional facilities. There are programs at a number of facilities across the state including the state’s five primary prisons and I was interested in what these programs are and how, when and why they came to be. I was particularly interested in the ways in which the purpose and function of these programs been conceived, measured and assessed by prison and state officials over the courses of their operation. My research methods included interviews with corrections department staff, visits to the locations, as well as secondary and primary source written material, such as prison annual reports.

I focused the majority of my research on the Bolduc Correctional Facility, a minimum-security facility in Thomaston, Maine, which sits on a farm of more than ten acres and which has the oldest farming program in the Maine correctional system. Over the course of two visits to the facility I learned about the scope of their operations, which include many acres of cultivation, a fleet of rescue horses maintained for the Dept. of Agriculture, and a herd of Belted Galloway Cows.

The farm’s operations have significantly decreased since its inception in 1930, when it comprised over 30 acres of land. Over the course of this history, the farm has variously had a chicken and turkey facility, a herd of pigs and a dairy barn, all of which are now gone. While the farm program at the Bolduc facility was started over 80 years ago, I found that the development of correctional farming programs is still in progress across the state. The Maine State Prison, (MSP) just up the road from the Bolduc facility, is in its second year of a garden program. The facility has torn up almost all of the grass within the confines of its fences to plant vegetables and is in the process of transitioning its robust flower program into a garden program as well as developing an extensive composting system to be used in conjunction with the gardens.

I found that the farming programs serve a multi-faceted purpose for the facilities and system within which they exist. Lacking any significant funding source, the programs serve a budgetary purpose, providing food for the inmates in the facilities at a savings to the facilities in addition to re-routing costly waste streams into increased agricultural yield. But the programs are not simply economically motivated. The programs are intended to be an engaging and rewarding learning experience for the few prisoners who get to work on them. At the MSP, they hope to employ 20 inmates (of 900 total). At the Bolduc facility10-15 inmates per day work on the farm. These jobs are coveted in the prisons, because of the freedom they afford prisoners, because of the working conditions compare favorably to other jobs available. In addition, many prisoners enjoy working on the farm because they find the process of caring for crops and animals and cultivating food for their own and other prisoner’s consumption inherently rewarding.

Upon seeing the operations of these programs up close, these programs appear to be a little-known good within a system that is widely regarded to be broken. As my research continues, I am interested in plotting the extent of similar programs across the nation. I am also interested in the ways in which these Maine programs could serve as an easily-implementable model for new programs elsewhere, as well as in understanding the conditions which would allow for such a development.

2017 Golz Fellow Lucia Ryan '19

This summer I researched eight major moments of racial violence in New York City history and built a website around this research. The long-term goal of this website is that it will act as a public, user-friendly, accessible resource for both students and educators learning about the history of racial violence in all American cities. The site provides primary sources, images, timelines, maps, narrative, and archived newspaper articles. This summer, I focused on solely New York City as the first section of the site, and studies events such as slave conspiracies, slave revolts, and riots.

The website contains two maps that I made, one for all of the U.S., and a more detailed one for just New York City. The New York map features the eight riots and their locations within the city. Each riot has its own page on the website. The eight riots are the 1712 slave revolt, 1741 slave conspiracy, 1863 draft riots, 1900 tenderloin riot, 1935 Harlem uprising, 1943 Harlem uprising, 1964 Harlem and Bedford-Stuyvesant riots, and the 1991 Crown Heights riot.

Each riot page contains a “period profile,” which provides context to the riot: it explains what was happening the city and country at the time of the violence and how this context might explain why the riot occurred. In crafting these profiles, I sought to demonstrate that no race riot was random or spontaneous. While some sources or media may have framed these riots as “eruptions,” suggesting an unexpected and inexplicable nature to the riots, I found in my research that each event of violence can be explained by the preexisting racial tensions of the time and place of the riot. In writing a historical narrative for each of these New York riots, I aimed to tell a greater story of New York City and its evolving history of racial tension, while providing historical analysis for the specifics of each riot as well. Each riot page also contains images of the event, a timeline or “unfolding-of-events”, and at least one download-able primary source that I obtained through online archival research. Some of the riot pages also contain a list of newspaper articles reporting on the event at the time. I used WordPress to build the website, with the help of the Bowdoin Academic Technology and New Media Consultant David Israel. In working on this site, I had to learn some very basic HTML code, such as with inserting images, captions, links, and PDFs, in creating content for each page. I created the content for each page through research in digital archives, such as the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the New York Public Library Digital Collections, and the New York Historical Society Digital Collections, Black Freedom Struggle, The New York Times archives and Time Machine, Black Studies Center, and the La Guardia and Wagner archives, as well as books and articles obtained through the Bowdoin, Bates and Colby Libraries. 

2016 Golz Fellow Sophie Binenfeld '17

This summer, I lived and worked in New York City at the Center for Jewish History. The Center for Jewish History is home to five archives, including YIVO, the Yeshiva University Museum, the American Jewish Historical Society, the Leo Baeck Institute, and the American Sefardi Federation. I used these archives to research Hashomer Hatzair, a socialist-Zionist youth organization that has roots in Austria, but is now global. My research led me to a series of magazines published by Hashomer Hatzair in the late 1940s entitled Youth Today from the United States as well as a British version entitled On Guard. I spent much of my time reading and analyzing these magazines for clues about the nature of the organization at this particular point in history- the end of World War II, the founding of Israel, and the start of the Cold War.

My research culminated in a series of podcasts which will be published on the Center for Jewish History's website. Not only was I lucky enough to spend time researching a topic about which I am passionate, but also I learned about navigating my way through an archive, a skill I hope to use as I begin my honors project this semester. On a separate note, I also spent some time on the administrative side of the organization, working with development staff to better understand how nonprofits such as the Center support themselves. This was also a valuable experience and I hope to use these skills in the future. I am so grateful to have spent my summer at the Center for Jewish History, and I hope that my research and podcasts will draw more budding historians to the Center to pursue their own research in the future.

2016 Golz Fellow Nate Forlini '18

This summer, I researched censorship relating to the long running Doonesbury comic strip authored by Garry Trudeau. Due to its nature as a source of cultural commentary and political satire, over the course of Doonesbury's forty-year run, the comic has often been a hotbed for controversy. Occasionally, some of Doonesbury's material has even been deemed too sensitive for publication by both local and national papers. Originally, my project centered on times when the content was deemed unfit for publication through an examination of editorials detailing the reasoning behind these decisions. Over time, however, my analysis evolved, and I included varying and divergent sources for a more dynamic exploration of cultural and generational trends.

As my research progressed, I focused on the idea of Baby Boomers as a 'special' generation in cultural memory. I explored the extent to which the narrative surrounding Boomers was derived from tangible differences between this age cohort and others vs. the degree to which disparities were historic myth propagated by the coverage of this generation as unique. Using Doonesbury as a lens, I began to probe this question with both primary sources from the comic and additional secondary sources from topics as eclectic as pieces on the evolution of humor to statistical findings on generational ideologies. Over the course of my extensive research, I developed a nuanced hypothesis that explained Doonesbury's decline in cultural relevance as it pertains to and demonstrates larger generation dynamics.

Trudeau's narrative voice behind his Doonesbury strip is a product of his formative experiences within the historic period of social upheaval during the student movement of the late sixties. Trudeau's forte and experiences thus stemmed from the fiercely insular and culturally prominent youth Baby Boomer counterculture. I found research to support the hypothesis that despite the fact that this was only a small group within the larger generation, its vociferation helped polarize the generation in historical memory. Doonesbury as one of the earliest chronicles of this group had a relevance beyond just its witty and scathing satire.

As the strip progressed over time, I found that it lost some of its initial relevance and originality. Through an inspection of censored strips I reasoned that there was a culture shift over times; however, more importantly, there was a demographic shift underlying social changes. That's not to say that Doonesbury had lost its comedic and satirical edge, rather that Trudeau's worldview is one of a Boomer and has had trouble portraying other generations with the same care and deep rooted understanding that he has written into characters of his generation. Because the Boomer generation is no longer on the cultural forefront of edgy and topical material, a new generation of readers has had trouble connecting to the strip's format of long-term storytelling when many characters aren't relatable and come off as generational stereotypes. In my research, I delved further into this generational disconnect and proposed that ultimately intergenerational animosity is a product of differences of experience that are conflated into the impression of real ideological intractability.

2015 Golz Fellow Christian Zavardino '17

This summer, I interned at Ellis Island, part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, and the Oyster Bay Historical Society, a small, local archive dedicated to preserving history related to the town of Oyster Bay.  My experiences at these institutions were vastly different; at Ellis Island, I was working for the National Park service, an enormous governmental agency tasked with preserving the history and character of the United States' national parks, whereas at the Oyster Bay Historical Society, I interned with only three or four other employees to reorganize, catalog and improve upon its collections.  I am very glad that I had the opportunity to intern at these two very different places over the summer.  As a result, I am considering a career in public history after graduation.

At Ellis Island, I worked primarily with my supervisor in the park's oral history program, which boasts a collection of over two thousand interviews of immigrants who entered the United States through Ellis Island, employees of the National Park Service, and immigration and professionals in the medical field who worked on the island while it was still receiving immigrants, and even American servicemen (mainly those serving in the Coast Guard) stationed there.  My work in the oral history program entailed reading, transcribing, summarizing, and reviewing these interviews.  I received a firm grounding in the fundamentals of the processing of oral histories, and I was able to contribute to a culturally and historically significant program that makes accessible the personal experiences and memories of the generations who passed through Ellis Island.  I expanded my knowledge of the history of immigration to the United States, not only during the years Ellis Island was operational as an immigration station (1892 to 1954) but also, owing to recently installed exhibits in the museum, in the post-World War II era to the present day and even the period from 1500 to 1800.

Working at the Oyster Bay Historical Society was a drastically different experience.  For two days a week, I undertook a ten-minute commute to Oyster Bay (as opposed to a two-and-a-half hour commute to Ellis Island three days a week) and worked with a supervisor on projects relating to the town's history, working closely with artifacts such as mechanical tools, clothing, booklets, posters, photographs, maps and centuries-old documents (including deeds, wills, and legal miscellany) from the seventeenth , eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries.  I analyzed, sorted, and organized these materials, placing them into storage spaces and labeling them while updating the Society's descriptions of them.  We also undertook a reorganization of hundreds of documents that had been labeled with an antiquated numbering system.  We then relabeled and renumbered them according to up-to-date archival standards, while also rehousing them in newer archival boxes to better preserve them.  I also assisted in the selection of materials for and building of an exhibit on historical hats ranging from approximately the 1910s to the present day.  The exhibit will be on display until September. 

Both internships have piqued my interest in the archival profession, which I am now seriously considering pursuing in graduate school.  They have broadened my knowledge of the work that constitutes an essential part of working in archives, all the while expanding upon my grasp of local and national history.

Ellis Island

2014 Golz Fellowship Winners

2014 Golz Fellow Lara Adoumie '16

The Private Politics of India’s Partition: Exploring Female Agency in the Face of Violence

I spent this summer researching varying instances of-and responses to- female agency during the 1947 partition of India and Pakistan, a time when hundreds of thousands of women and girls were raped, mutilated, amputated and abducted. Though it would be an injustice to draw attention away from the horrifying sexual violence these women endured, I found in the course of my research that women played a role beyond that of passive victims. Certain instances, such as the self-inflicted mass drowning of Sikh women during ethnic clashes in Rawalpindi (Punjab), raise significant questions about agency and how we define violence when there is a lesser-than-two-evil’s choice available. And if these women were, and still are, applauded as “heroic” martyrs of their religion, why were later instances of women illustrating agency- by refusing forced state sponsored relocations of abducted women in the post partition years- censored by society and the state? By analyzing a number of sources, ranging from oral testimonies collected by the 1947 Partition Archive Project, to textual interviews and memoirs of survivors and social workers, I believe I have discovered a kind of “continuum of violence,” to which women are subjected to (both in everyday life and in moments of communal strife) and which is a result of the link between ideas of honor and the female body. I have presented my ideas in the form of an interactive website, displaying corresponding film and photo work to bring this rich history to life.

Adoumie's Project

2014 Golz Fellow Matthew Liptrot

Internship at the Pejepscot Historical Society

I spent this summer interning at the Pejepscot Historical Society (PHS) in Brunswick. My primary responsibility was to analyze and codify the enormous unexamined supply of documents stored in the Skolfield-Whittier house. This took the form of two separate avenues of work. On the one hand I read through the documents to determine a line of research of personal interest to myself. After exploring and discarding several potential topics I settled on the Venereal Disease epidemic of early 20th century America and the Social Hygiene movement dedicated to eradicating the diseases. By some estimates as much as 10% of America suffered from syphilis, gonorrhea, or both during this period.  My work seems to have been the first time many of these documents have been looked at for research purposes. The other aspect of my work was creating document inventories and finding aids to allow other people to ascertain what documents the house holds without having to root about through hundred and in some cases hundred and fifty year old papers. Before I began this work there had been no other way to look for research material in the house than to start looking at random and hope you struck historical gold. This summer I have sampled the potential usefulness of PHS’ historical archives as well as bringing them an important step closer to being more widely accessible.

Pejepscot Historical Society