Glossary T-Z

teams – Bowdoin fields varsity teams for both men and women (except as noted) in the following sports: baseball (men only), basketball, cross-country, football (men only), field hockey (women only), golf, ice hockey, indoor track, lacrosse, Nordic skiing, outdoor track, rugby (women only), sailing (coed), soccer, softball (women only), squash, swimming and diving, tennis, and volleyball (women only).

The following Bowdoin club sports also compete at the intercollegiate level: men’s and women’s rowing, men’s rugby, men’s and women’s Ultimate Frisbee, men’s and women’s water polo, equestrian competition, men’s volleyball, men’s and women’s alpine skiing.

Intramural sports include soccer, field hockey, ice hockey, squash, softball, volleyball, basketball, and indoor soccer.

telephone numbers – written with a hyphen after the area code and no parentheses, periods, slashes, or other punctuation. The telephone number for Bowdoin College is 207-725-3000. While not incorrect, the following phone number styles do not adhere to Bowdoin style and should be avoided: (207) 725-3000, 207.725.3000.

that/which – use that to introduce a restrictive clause—a clause that is essential to the meaning of the sentence. In general, the word that used in this context does not take commas. Use which (set off by commas) to introduce a nonrestrictive clause, or one that can be removed from the sentence without making it inaccurate. When in doubt, experiment with using the word that. If the sentence sounds good to the ear, you’ve probably chosen correctly.

If you are referring to a person, use who or whom (or whose) to introduce the restrictive clause.

theater – not theatre, except in proper names if you are sure that is the official spelling, as in Maine State Music Theatre.

Third World – capitalize.

time – When listing a span of time, Bowdoin style prefers attaching a.m. or p.m. to both the starting and ending times (2:00 p.m.–4:00 p.m., rather than 2:00–4:00 p.m.). Note the connecting punctuation is an en dash, which is not surrounded by spaces. Also see listings for a.m. and p.m.; midnight; and noon.

titles (professional, etc.), abbreviating – When an official title precedes a surname only, the title is spelled out. When the individual’s full name is used, a one-word title is usually abbreviated (Prof. Rachel Connolly, but not Assoc. Prof. Charlotte Daniels; Senator Mitchell, Gov. Paul LePage).

titles (professional, etc.), capitalization – Official titles that precede someone’s name are capitalized (President Clayton Rose, Professor Connelly).

Do not capitalize descriptive titles before names (economics professor Rachel Connelly, class agent John Smith). Likewise, use lowercase for descriptive words that are not titles that come before a person’s name (machinist Bob Stevens).

In general, do not capitalize titles after names or those set off by commas (Jennifer Scanlon, dean for academic affairs, John Smith, class agent).

Exception: Named professorships – The titles of named professorships are uppercase whether they precede or follow the professor’s name (Craig A. McEwen, Daniel B. Fayerweather Professor of Political Economy and Sociology). All words in the named professorship title are capitalized according to title style. This includes words that would not otherwise be capitalized, such as Professor and Emeritus or Emerita.

Use lowercase for titles standing alone (the president, the dean for academic affairs, class agent, the director of graduate study).

It is often kindest to the reader to move titles to follow names and make them lowercase, especially in the case of long titles (John Q. Public, vice president for planning and advancement and assistant to the chief executive officer, as opposed to Vice President for Planning and Advancement and Assistant to the Chief Executive Officer John Q. Public).

Exception: Titles in display (mastheads, other listings) or in formal usage (programs, announcements) are often capitalized without regard to the above rules.

See also: individual titles, e.g., "president," "governor," etc.

titles (of works), style – use the following typographical styles for titles:

Books, periodicals, newspapers: italics (Portland Press Herald)

Articles, book chapters, short stories: roman type, within quotation marks ("Bernice Bobs Her Hair")

Poems: generally roman type, within quotation marks ("The Road Not Taken"). Longer, epic works: italics (Don Juan)

Plays: italics (Hamlet)

Movies, television, radio: titles are italicized (The Mary Tyler Moore Show). Names of individual episodes: roman, within quotation marks ("Chuckles Bites the Dust")

Musical works: Operas and long works are italicized (Aida). Song titles are roman type, within quotation marks ("Hey, Jude"). Classical instrumental works known by "generic" terms such as symphony, concerto, etc., are set in roman type, no quotation marks; Bowdoin prefers the following capitalization style: Symphony No. 5 in G Major, op. 32. 

Lectures: roman type, within quotation marks ("The Sack of the Palace: Reading Assyrian Reliefs"). However, lecture series are listed in roman type, title capitalization, no quotation marks (Visual Culture in the 21st Century).

Exhibitions: Bowdoin style prefers exhibition titles set in italics (The Walker Sisters and Collecting in Victorian Boston)

Paintings, drawings, and other works of art: italics (Mona Lisa), except antiquities, which are roman type, no quotation marks (the Venus de Milo) 

toward/towards – Both are acceptable. For the sake of editorial consistency, we prefer toward.

United Kingdom – spell out as a noun; UK (without periods) is primarily used as an adjective.

United States – spell out as a noun, although you may abbreviate it (U.S.) on a second and subsequent references. While the Chicago Manual allows US (without periods), Bowdoin style prefers U.S. (with periods). Also may be abbreviated as an adjective (U.S. passport).

university names, style – When a university campus is designated by its city name, separate the university name and the city by an en dash (University of Michigan–Ann Arbor), not a comma. Using an "at" in place of the en dash (University of Michigan at Ann Arbor) is also acceptable, though can make a sentence read awkwardly. Whenever possible, check the university's website for their preferred listing.

upperclass – when referring to students, upperclass is one word, no hyphen (the upperclasses, upperclass students; when referring to social class, it is two words as a noun (the upper class) and hyphenated as an adjective (upper-class society). See listing for upperclassmen below.

upperclassmen – avoid the use of this word, which sounds both elitist and sexist. Use juniors and seniors instead. (And while avoiding this word, do not make the mistake of believing it includes sophomores; it does not. They are found among the lowerclassmen—a term that also is not used).

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) – It is not necessary to use the full "http://www" in web addresses in running text. Use the simple rather than  Do not italicize or underline web addresses. If a sentence ends with a web address, do end the sentence with a period. If you think this will confuse potential web users, reword the sentence or place the URL within parentheses or angled brackets (<  >) and end the sentence with a period.

In the text of e-mails, however, it is often advisable to use the full URL, including the http://www as part of the address, because the address will serve as a hotlink.

versus – avoid the abbreviation vs. in running copy

vice president – see titles, capitalization; note no hyphen.

vita – short name for a summary of one’s personal history and professional qualifications. The plural is vitae. The long form is curriculum vita (plural: curricula vitae).  As an abbreviation: CV (no periods; plural: CVs).

voice mail – two words

Walker Art Museum – Never use this name when referring to the Bowdoin College Museum of Art; it is a misnomer. The correct name of Bowdoin's art museum is the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Much of the museum is located in the Walker Art Building (not Museum), but name of the "Building" should be used only in reference to the museum's architectural history.

web – The Chicago Manual no longer capitalizes web, website, webmaster, etc., so Bowdoin now follows suit. We no longer capitalize "web," and "website" is now one word, lowercase. However, the Associated Press continues to capitalize "Web," and both manuals continue to capitalize World Wide Web.

website – Bowdoin no longer favors "Web site" (two words, with Web capitalized). In adherence to rules set forth by both the Chicago Manual and the Associated Press, Bowdoin now prefers "website."

well-known – hyphenated as an adjective; otherwise not (Her accomplishments were well known).

west – lowercased as a direction, but capitalized if referring to a specific geographic location (the West). Do not spell it out in a street address (1460 W. Alameda)

which/that – use that to introduce a restrictive clause—a clause that is essential to the meaning of the sentence. The use of the word that in this context does not take commas (I have a car that has two doors). Use which (set off by commas) to introduce a nonrestrictive clause, or one that can be removed from the sentence without making it inaccurate (My car, which has two doors, is blue).  When in doubt, experiment with using the word that. If the sentence sounds good to the ear, you’ve probably chosen correctly.

If you are referring to a person, use who or whom (or whose) to introduce the restrictive clause.

white – should be lowercase when referring to race.

winter – lowercase (winter sports)

who, whom, that, etc. – use the appropriate forms of who to refer to people, that to refer to things. This does, of course, mean that you will need to determine whether the correct form is who (subject), whom (object), or whose (possessive). The man whom I saw crossing the street;...  The person who is speaking;... The dog that is barking;... The dog that ran across the street;...

Not: The students that I teach or The professors that I liked best,...  though these are frequently heard in conversation.

whose/who’s – whose is a possessive pronoun. Who’s is only ever a contraction of the words who is or who has. "Whose book is this? Who’s going to the store with me? He is the only person I know who’s ever failed gym."

World Wide Web – As the formal name, capitalize World Wide Web. Also capitalize Internet.

www — When listing URLs in running text, it is no longer necessary to include the prefix "www." For example, refer to the Bowdoin website as simply ""

Xerox – never a verb; it is a trademarked corporate name. You copy or photocopy pages, but you do not Xerox them. Other trademark names often used incorrectly to identify generic items include Kleenex (use tissue), Rollerblade (use inline skate), and Dumpster (use trash receptacle). If you are referring to an actual branded item, capitalize the proper name: I brought the trash to the Dumpster.

ZIP code – postal service trademark; the acronym ZIP stands for zoning improvement plan, and should be all uppercase letters.