Location: Bowdoin / Communications / Styles and Standards / Glossary
Style Guide Glossary

A – when referring to a grade, is not set off with quotation marks or any other special punctuation. It stands on its own. For plurals, no apostrophe is used except in the case of letters that might otherwise be confusing (Bs is correct; A’s is correct so as not to be confused with the word As, for example).

a/an – the article a precedes nouns beginning with consonant sounds. An precedes nouns beginning with vowel sounds. Nouns beginning with a pronounced h, long u or eu sound, or the word "one" are preceded by a, not an (a historic study, a union, such a one; but an honor, an herb).

abbreviations, punctuation – The Chicago Manual follows the trend towards the omission of periods in abbreviations, but notes exceptions (Mr., Mrs., Ms.; academic degrees; civilian and military titles; abbreviations that spell words [no., a., in.]; references to business names (Inc., Co., Bros.); states and some country names (U.S., but UK).

accent mark – or, a diacritical mark; an accent indicating special pronunciation. Be aware that these marks do not always come through as intended in transferring electronic files.

acronyms – or, more correctly, initialisms. Exclusive use of initialisms/acronyms (“NSF” in place of “National Science Foundation,” for example) should be avoided since the reader may be unfamiliar with their meanings. Spell out the name on first use, and use the initialism/acronym in any subsequent references. The initialism/acronym within parentheses follows the spelled out name only if the initialism/acronym is used again in within the body of the text.

By definition, an acronym is a word formed by the first initials of a series of words (radar, for radio detecting and ranging, for example); an initialism is an abbreviation that is pronounced using the letters' names (as in the above example NSF).  

A.D. – in small capital letters (small caps) with periods, when feasible. Use of capital letters is also acceptable. The reference precedes the year number (A.D. 486). B.C. follows the year number (488 B.C.).

addresses – Bowdoin addresses have (at least) four lines and must follow the order given below:

1. the recipient and/or the department
2. Bowdoin College
3. XXXX College Station
4. Brunswick, ME 04011-XXXX

administration – see collective nouns.

Advanced Placement – administered by the College Entrance Examination Board; may be abbreviated AP (Advanced Placement program, AP test results).

advisor – the Bowdoin-preferred spelling of the word many people know as adviser.

affect/effect – affect is a verb meaning “to have an influence on; to produce a change.” (His sentiments did not affect my vote.) A second, rarer, psychological meaning is “emotion,” and the accent when this meaning is desired is on the first syllable.

Where people get into trouble is confusing affect with effect, which itself can have two meanings: a noun meaning “anything brought about by a cause or agent; a result” (The effect of my vote was the termination of his employment.), or a verb meaning “to cause” (to effect a compromise…).

affirmative action – lowercased when generic, but Bowdoin is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity institution.

African American – American of African extraction. (The Associated Press Style prefers to use “black.”) Do not hyphenate as a noun or as an adjective. Do not use Afro-American.

Africana Studies Program; Africana Studies Committee – both capitalized as proper names, but Africana studies when on its own.

age – On this matter, Bowdoin follows the Associated Press Stylebook, not the Chicago Manual, in order to make running text less dense. Use figures, as in "The girl is 15 years old," not "The girl is fifteen years old." Hyphenate when the ages are used as an adjective: "The 15-year-old girl"; or when used as a noun substitute: "The 15-year-old."

alma mater – do not italicize.

alum – a common, informal, generic short form of the singular, plural, masculine, and feminine terms below. Avoid use of the word "alum" in writing.

alumna – a woman who attended Bowdoin (or another school or college). A woman need not have graduated from Bowdoin to be an alumna. (She need only to have attended for one year and to want to remain on the mailing list. So, though it is tempting to resolve the gender question with “graduates,” a good many in fact are not graduates.) If you are writing a sentence that calls for the generic singular usage (one male or female Bowdoin graduate), it would be simplest to recast the sentence in the plural and use alumni; otherwise you’re left having to refer to “an alumnus or an alumna.”

alumnae – the plural form of alumna: women who have attended or graduated from Bowdoin (or another school or college).

alumni – the plural form for men or a combination of men and women who have attended or graduated from Bowdoin (or another school or college).

alumnus – a male who attended Bowdoin (or another school or college). (He need not have graduated from Bowdoin to be an alumnus. He need only to have attended for one year and to want to remain on the mailing list. So, though it is tempting to resolve the gender question with “graduates,” a good many in fact are not graduates.) If you are writing a sentence that calls for the generic singular usage (one male or female Bowdoin graduate), it would be simplest to recast the sentence in the plural and use alumni; otherwise you’re left having to refer to “an alumnus or an alumna.”

a.m., AM in time designations, use a.m. and p.m. (lowercase with periods) for running text; use AM and PM (small capital letters, no periods) in other places such as posters, formal programs, and invitations. In some instances (in which the overall design merits it, or if there are issues with a particular font) it is also acceptable to use A.M. and P.M. (uppercase, not small caps, with periods).

American Indian – acceptable, but native American (lowercase n) is preferred, and a reference to a specific tribe may be better in some cases.

Ampersands (&) – Avoid using in almost all cases; spell out the word “and” instead. In general, the use of ampersands should be confined to corporate names (Procter & Gamble). At Bowdoin, an ampersand is used only in the name of the library's George J. Mitchell Department of Special Collections & Archives; in the multiple-position titles of staff that contain more than one "and" (i.e., Senior Vice President for Finance and Administration & Treasurer S. Catherine Longley); and occasionally as a graphic design element to create a deliberate look on a publication or Web page. Never use an & as a substitute for the word "and" in running text.

antebellum – before the war, literally. This term is used in reference only to the American Civil War and is best reserved for use in contexts that make its meaning clear.

app – Abbreviation for "application" on a mobile device. Acceptable use in place of the full word.

Arctic – capitalize when referring to the area around the North Pole, including the Arctic Ocean; lowercase when used as an adjective (arctic winds). Capitalize when referring to the Arctic Museum or Arctic Studies Center, even when not using the proper name.

Asian – of or pertaining to Asia.

Asian American – American of Asian extraction.

autumn/fall – lowercase (fall semester)

B – when referring to a grade, is not set off with quotation marks or any other special punctuation. It stands on its own. For plurals, no apostrophe is used except in the case of letters that might otherwise be confusing (Bs is correct; A’s is correct so as not to be confused with the word As, for example).

bachelor of arts – B.A., B.A.’s, bachelor of arts degree. Note: some schools grant A.B. degrees, for artium baccalaureus. If you graduate from Bowdoin your degree is conferred in Latin, and your diploma is in Latin. Generally, older colleges and universities are the ones that have kept this pattern.

bachelor’s degree – B.A., B.A.’s, B.S., B.S.’s. Always one bachelor, even if there are many degrees. (Each year, Bowdoin grants more than 400 bachelor’s degrees.)

be it, be they – “Be” in this expression is used (unnecessarily) as a present subjunctive in English. The subjunctive is used “to express wishes, requests, or conditions contrary to fact.” [Diana Hacker, Rules for Writers, Third Edition, p. 213]

EXAMPLE Incorrect: This student will not have enough credits to graduate, be it a B, C, or D he receives in this course. There is nothing here contrary to fact or requested: the student will receive a grade, probably a B, C, or D. Correct: This student will not have enough credits to graduate, whether she receives a B, C, or D in this course.

As a holdover use of the subjunctive, “be it” sounds somehow more academic, but it should be seen instead as archaic. Keep in mind:

“Fee, fi, fo fum, I smell the blood of an Englishman./Be he alive or be he dead, I’ll grind his bones to make my bread.”

B.C. – in small caps with periods, when feasible. Use of capital letters is also acceptable. B.C. follows the year it modifies (486 B.C.), while A.D. precedes it (A.D. 486).

between you and me – grammatically correct. “Between you and I” is incorrect.

bias-free content – in keeping with the College’s explicit policy of not discriminating, use words and constructions that are free from bias, and do not reinforce negative stereotypes.

black – should be lowercase when referring to race; African American is preferred, except when following Associated Press style for material prepared for the news media.

board of trustees – only capitalized when using the formal name: Bowdoin College Board of Trustees.  Individual members may be referred to as trustees or board members.

both/each – the use of the word both can be confusing. If you say, “I gave both boys $50,” do you mean that the boys are sharing the money or that each received $50?

There are times when it is important for the sake of clarity to use “each” with a singular verb rather than "both" with a plural verb.

Bowdoin College Museum of Art – Always list Bowdoin's art museum using its complete, official name: Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Do not say Walker Art Building unless you are referring specifically to the architectural history of the building. "Walker Art Museum" is never correct.

Bowdoin wordmark – A distinct public image is an invaluable asset to any organization. The Bowdoin College wordmark, when used consistently over time, will instantly identify a publication, sign, or merchandise as an official communication from Bowdoin College. The success of our visual identification program depends on the correct and consistent use of its components. For authorized artwork for primary wordmark signatures at Bowdoin College contact the Office of Communications and Public Affairs at 207-725-3259 or visit the Wordmark Standards Web site.

brackets – when text within a parenthetical statement also requires parentheses, use brackets for the internal punctuation; i.e., no parentheses within parentheses, or no double parentheses.

buildings/places – campus building names are capitalized when the formal name is used (Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, Studzinski Recital Hall), but not with informal references (the library, the recital hall). When identifying a building by name, use the full name and do not abbreviate (Visual Arts Center, not VAC; Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, not H-L Library; never H&L Library—there is no "and" in the building's name). For a list of official building names, see the Bowdoin College Catalogue online. It is usually correct to eliminate "the" in building names: Studzinski Recital Hall, not the Studzinski Recital Hall. Do not identify a building as "new" if it has been open for one year or more.

bulleted lists – A vertical list is best set off by a complete grammatical sentence followed by a colon. Listed items have ending punctuation only if the items are complete sentences. If the listed items are numbered or bulleted, the line item begins with a capital letter.

Joe had three ways he could “Commute Another Way”:
1. Carpool with Mary
2. Ride his bike
3. Walk

Joe had three ways he could "Commute Another Way":
    carpool with Mary
    ride his bike
    walk

Joe had three ways he could “Commute Another Way”:
1. He could carpool with Mary.
2. He could ride his bike.
3. He could walk.

If a vertical list does not begin with a complete sentence followed by a colon, then the entire list should be treated as a sentence. Listed items may be set off by numbers, but begin with a lowercase letter and end with either a comma or semicolon. The entire list ends with a period.

Joe’s three ways to “Commute Another Way” are
1. to carpool with Mary,
2. to ride his bike,
3. to walk.

See also: Lists, run-in

businessmen – use business people, executives

C – when referring to a grade, is not set off with quotation marks or any other special punctuation. It stands on its own. For plurals, no apostrophe is used except in the case of letters that might otherwise be confusing (Bs is correct; A’s is correct so as not to be confused with the word As, for example).

cameraman – use photographer  or camera operator or videographer instead.

Canceled/canceling/cancellation – the single l in the first two words is correct; use of the double l in “cancelled” or “cancelling” is chiefly British spelling; cancellation always takes the double l. Similar words include traveled/traveling.

Capitalization – Nouns and titles—written alone or following a person's name—should not be capitalized simply to bestow a sense of high position. While we endeavor to be respectful, it is impossible to be institutionally consistent if each writer uses a self-chosen capitalization vocabulary. Therefore, editors will lowercase nouns and titles to adhere to Bowdoin style rules. When a title precedes a person's name, however, it is often—but not always—correct to capitalize it.

Incorrect: Barack Obama, President of the United States; Mary Smith, Assistant Professor of Linguistics; she is a Trustee

Correct: Barack Obama, president of the United States; Mary Smith, assistant professor of linguistics; she is a trustee

Correct: President Barack Obama; Assistant Professor of Linguistics Mary Smith; trustee Jane Jones

Bowdoin’s style makes exceptions for “College” and “Commencement,” and uses title style in invitations and programs, but we do our best to maintain consistent Chicago Manual “down” style.

See “titles” section for more information.

catalogue – Bowdoin’s annual course catalogue is capitalized when its formal name is used (Bowdoin College Catalogue), but not in informal references to the catalogue. But, no matter what your dictionary says, it is spelled with the ue at the end (not catalog). The library’s various catalogs, however, drop the ue.

cellphone – one word, no hyphen. 

centuries – and other numerical designations of a period are lowercased, unless there is a designation of a proper name. References to centuries are hyphenated when used as adjectives, otherwise not (nineteenth-century literature, literature of the nineteenth century).

chair, chairman, chairwoman – Bowdoin uses chair for the head of a committee or board, rather than chairman, chairwoman,  or chairperson. The exception is in writing about someone whose official title is or was chairman, chairwoman, or chairperson, in which case you use the correct title.

class identification – refer to first-year students, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, as appropriate, rather than referring to freshmen, lowerclassmen, or upperclassmen. All are lowercased.

class year – class of 2004; Barry Mills ’72; references from the founding of the College to 100 years before the present first-year class should include the entire year (Calvin Stowe 1824, Philip Weston Meserve 1911, Alfred Kinsey '16).

coed – short for coeducational, no hyphen. 

collective nouns – single entities that are made up of more than one thing or person (the government, faculty, administration, family) are generally treated as singular nouns and take a singular verb (although in Britain, they are generally treated as plural). Where people often get into trouble is choosing a plural pronoun to replace the singular collective noun ("The faculty wanted its voice heard," not "The faculty wanted their voice heard"). In the national media, you will often see or hear the pronoun their incorrectly used in reference to a corporation and its decisions.

There are cases where these collective terms should be treated as plural nouns. If the reference clearly implies multiple people acting individually, rather than as an entity, it is correct to use the plural references—for instance, when referring to the faculty as a group of individuals rather than a collective body. You wouldn’t say, “The faculty determine its own office hours.” It would be better to rewrite the sentence to make it clear we are talking about more than one faculty member: “Members of the faculty determine their own office hours.”

College  – capitalize when it is a specific reference to Bowdoin (even though it is not the proper name); lowercase when used alone in reference to other institutions.

College House – the correct way to refer to the student residences that are part of the College House system in Bowdoin's residential life program. Do not use the term "social house" when referring to any College House.

colon, spaces after – One space, not two, follows punctuation marks such as the colon, period, and exclamation point. The habit of putting two spaces after the colons and sentence-ending punctuation is a leftover from the days of typewriters, and is simply no longer necessary.

commas – Bowdoin uses the serial comma, a comma separating all elements of a series of three or more elements, including the one before a final conjunction ("We have a choice of copper, silver, or gold"). When the serial elements are long and complex or involve internal punctuation, they are separated by semicolons.

Commas (and periods) almost always fall inside quotation marks:

Correct: He wrote the poems “Summer,” “Winter,” and “Spring.”

Incorrect: He wrote the poems “Summer”, “Winter”, and “Spring”. (This style is chiefly British usage.)

Commas are also used in numbers of 1,000 and higher.

Commencement – capitalize when referring to Bowdoin’s ceremony and Commencement Weekend; lowercase in generic references.

committees – proper names are capitalized (Africana Studies Committee); informal references are not (budget committee).

common good — Lowercase in most cases; this is consistent with President Joseph McKeen's 1802 declaration that "...literary institutions are founded and endowed for the common good...." It is capitalized in instances where it is used in an official title, as in the Joseph McKeen Center for the Common Good, and the Common Good Award.

compound words – The Chicago Manual says compound words account for nine out of ten spelling questions—most regarding the use of hyphens. Many questions are resolved with the aid of the dictionary. Some common compound terms and their preferred spelling:

    service learning course (no hyphen)
    study abroad course (no hyphen)
    off-campus study (with hyphen)
    decision making, problem solving (a noun; no hyphen)
    decision-making process problem-solving process (an adjective, with a hyphen)

comprise – the word “comprise” is a transitive verb only, which means it must have an object and it may not be used in the passive voice. It is absolutely never correct to say that something is comprised of something else.

Incorrect: The group is comprised of juniors and seniors.

Correct: The group comprises juniors and seniors.

couple – see collective nouns.

course titles – Titles of courses taught at Bowdoin are written in upper and lowercase letters, with no punctuation or formatting (such as italics). For example: Several members of the department teach Principles of Microeconomics.

cum laude Latin title, meaning “with honors”; set lowercase in italics. At Bowdoin, this is referred to as “Latin honors” and is conferred on graduating students whose GPAs place them between the top 8 percent and 20 percent of the graduating class.

Curriculum – the single form of the word; curricula is plural.

curriculum vitae – (plural: curricula vitae), a summary of one’s personal history and professional qualifications. An allowable short form is vita (plural: vitae), or just CV (no periods; plural: CVs).

D – when referring to a grade, is not set off with quotation marks or any other special punctuation. It stands on its own. For plurals, no apostrophe is used except in the case of letters that might otherwise be confusing (Bs is correct; A’s is correct so as not to be confused with the word As, for example).

dais – pronounced "day-iss," though "die-is" is also accepted. A raised platform at one end of a hall or room used for a stage, throne, or speaker’s platform.

dangling modifiers – A dangling participle is a phrase that uses a participial verb (one that ends in -ing), often with additional modifiers or objects, to add supplementary information to a sentence. The subject of the participial verb MUST be the same as the subject of the main verb of the sentence.

The following examples combine these three sentences into one sentence: I stepped up to the plate. I swung at the ball. The umpire called, “Strike three!”

Incorrect: Stepping up to the plate, the ball was missed and the umpire called “Strike three.” Unless you mean that the umpire stepped up to the plate to make his call, technically here “ball” is the subject of “stepping.”

Correct: Stepping up to the plate, I swung at the ball and the umpire called, “Strike three!”

Sometimes dangling modifiers are infinitive phrases:

Incorrect: To catch a big fish, the right kind of bait is important.

Correct: To catch a big fish, you must use the right kind of bait.

They may also be prepositional or adverbial phrases or clauses with an understood subject and verb.

Incorrect: As a professor of economics, her work involves international research. “Work” is not a professor. Either add the correct subject to the phrase or move it.

Correct: “Her work as a professor of economics involves...” (now the modifier directly describes her work) OR “As she is a professor of economics, her work...” (separate subjects)

For a good summary of problems with dangling modifiers, see Diana Hacker, Rules for Writers, Third Edition, pp. 110–116.

dashes – see entries for “em dash” and “en dash” for more information. Do not put spaces between words and dashes. The following examples are correct: His children—Tom, Dick, and Mary—all became doctors. The exhibition is on view September 1–October 31. Hours of operation: 8:30 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

data – a plural noun that usually takes a singular verb. For calculations and data-driven research, retain the plural verb if that is preferred usage in the discipline. For more general use, the singular is acceptable.

database – one word, no hyphen

dates – use commas when including the date in a standard format (Sept. 16, 2004), but not in the format 16 September 2004. Also do not use a comma when only the month and year are given (September 2004). When denoting a period, do not use a dash in place of from or between (Not from Sept. 16–22, but from Sept. 16 to Sept. 22). Avoid using “th” when denoting a date (use Sept. 16, not Sept. 16th); "ordinals" (with the "th") are primarily spoken. When listing a span of years, Bowdoin style prefers listing the complete beginning and ending year: 2006–2007, rather than 2006–07 (though the latter is not incorrect). Note the connecting punctuation is an en dash, which is not surrounded by spaces.

decades – and other numerical designations of a period are lowercased, unless there is a designation of a proper name. When a number is abbreviated, it takes an apostrophe typed as a reverse single quote (’60s); when it is made plural, it does not take an apostrophe (1960s).

decision making – no hyphen required when used as a noun. Hyphenate when used as an adjective ("decision-making process").

degrees, punctuation/list of – Bowdoin grants only bachelor of arts degrees (A.B.’s). Even in the science disciplines, its degrees are bachelor of arts degrees (never bachelors – the degrees may be plural, but the designation isn’t).

correct:

bachelor of arts degree – B.A.

bachelor of arts degrees – B.A.’s

bachelor’s degrees

master of arts degree – M.A.

master of arts degrees – M.A.’s

master’s degrees


The following is a list of some of the more common degrees and their abbreviations:

A.M. – Artium Magister (Master of Arts)

B.A. – Bachelor of Arts

B.D. – Bachelor of Divinity

B.S. – Bachelor of Science

D.A. - Doctor of Arts 

D.D. – Doctor of Divinity

D.D.S. – Doctor of Dental Surgery

J.D. Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law)

L.H.D. - Doctor of Humane Letters 

Litt.D. – Doctor of Letters

M.A. – Master of Arts

M.D. – Medicinae Doctor (Doctor of Medicine)

M.S. – Master of Science

Ph.D. – Philosophiae Doctor (Doctor of Philosophy)

S.B. – Bachelor of Science


As with any abbreviations with periods, the plural of these degrees is made by adding an apostrophe + s: Ph.D.’s, B.A.’s.

degrees, receipt of – avoid references to a person “receiving” his or her academic degree(s), which sounds passive and does not reflect the work that degree represents. It is much better to say he or she “earned” the degree. Also, a degree is earned at an institution, not from an institution.

departments/offices – department and office names are capitalized when the official name is used (Department of Art, Office of Admissions), but not when an informal, generic, or abbreviated name is used (admissions, athletics, the department).

The official, and therefore capitalized, names of departments and offices are listed this way: Department of Art, Office of Admissions. However, in those instances when the word "department" or "office" falls after the name in order to avoid awkward or wordy construction, it is acceptable to capitalize it provided the word "department" or "office" is used. Therefore, Art Department, Admissions Office. In instances when just the generic descriptive word is used for the department/office, it is not capitalized: He works in admissions; she teaches art.

Note that at Bowdoin department, program, and major may not be synonymous. Please check the list below or the Bowdoin College Catalogue for correct terminology.

Following is a list of academic departments at Bowdoin: art, biology, chemistry, classics, computer science, earth and oceanographic science, economics, education, English, German, government and legal studies, history, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, psychology, religion, Romance languages, Russian, sociology and anthropology, and theater and dance.

The following are programs, not departments: Africana studies, Asian studies, biochemistry, environmental studies, film studies, gay and lesbian studies, Latin American studies, neuroscience, and gender and women’s studies.

Administrative departments include, for example, athletics, facilities, and information technology.

diacritic – a diacritical mark; an accent indicating special pronunciation. Be aware that these marks do not always come through as intended in transferring electronic files.

different – use "different from," never "different than."

disabled – “persons with disabilities” is preferred over disabled or handicapped.

dorm/dormitory – do not use “dormitory” or “dorm”; the preferred phrase is “residence hall.”

Dr. – Bowdoin does not use “Dr.” as a term of address for professors. Do not use the title of doctor or its abbreviation for someone who has an earned or honorary Ph.D., unless he or she is also a practicing medical doctor.

drop off – such phrases as “drop off,” “pick up,” and “sign in,” when used as instructions, are imperative verbs and should not be hyphenated (Drop off your registration card at the Office of the Registrar). Used to describe a location where an activity takes place, the words are hyphenated (There is a drop-off box for Federal Express shipments outside the Copy Center).

each – as a subject is always singular and takes a singular verb. People sometimes get confused when the subject is modified by a prepositional phrase with a plural object (Each of the students has a dining hall pass). The subject is still each and the verb is still singular. See subject/verb agreement for more on this subject.

east – lowercased as a direction, but capitalized if referring to a specific geographic location (the East). Do not spell it out in a street address (1460 E. Huntington)

effect – has two common meanings: a noun meaning “anything brought about by a cause or agent; a result” (The effect of my vote was the termination of his employment), or a verb meaning “to cause”(to effect a compromise…).

This should not be (but often is) confused with affect, which is a verb meaning “to have an influence on; to produce a change.” (His sentiments did not affect my vote.)

e.g. – in Roman type (not italics) and always followed by a comma.  Abbreviation of exempli gratia, which means “for example.” Not to be confused with i.e., which explains more specifically the point you’ve just made.

ellipsis – the omission of a word or words from a text. To let the reader know that something has been omitted, we use ellipsis points, or three periods separated by two spaces, to stand in for the omitted text. When the omission occurs within a phrase, the three periods also have spaces on either side. Other punctuation that may help the meaning of the sentence may be used before or after the ellipsis points (commas and semicolons before the ellipsis points; colons after).  

When the omission occurs at the end of a sentence, a period (or question mark or exclamation point), which would come after the last word, is followed by three more periods, each separated by a space. The sentence immediately preceding the ellipsis points and the one following should each be complete sentences. If a quotation or sentence is intentionally left incomplete, it is followed only by the three dots, omitting the period.

Ellipsis points are not used before or after a block quotation or before or after an obviously incomplete sentence.

e-mail – hyphenated

e-mail addresses – use lowercase (jsmith@bowdoin.edu)

em-dash and en-dash – these dashes are so named because they are designed to equal the width of the letters m and n respectively. In general, an em-dash signifies a break or offset in text, and an en-dash is most often used with numbers. The dashes are not surrounded by spaces.

Correct em-dash: His children—Tom, Dick, and Mary—all became doctors.

Incorrect em-dash: His children — Tom, Dick, and Mary — all became doctors. (Note: Use of the spaces around the em-dash is correct in Associated Press style.)

Correct en-dash: Commencement Weekend May 26–28

Incorrect en-dash: Commencement Weekend May 26 – 28

To type an en-dash, use option-hyphen; for an em-dash, use option-shift-hyphen.

emerita – feminine singular form of the title bestowed on one who has retired from active service, but who has retained her rank or title. It is not italicized.

Note that emeritus status may only be conferred by formal vote of the board of trustees. To check whether someone is retired or has been declared emeritus, check the lists of officers (of government, of instruction, of administration) in the Bowdoin College Catalogue.

emeritae – feminine plural form of the title bestowed on those who have retired from active service, but who have retained their rank or title. It is not italicized.

Note that emeritus status may only be conferred by formal vote of the board of trustees. To check whether someone is retired or has been declared emeritus, check the lists of officers (of government, of instruction, of administration) in the Bowdoin College Catalogue.

emeriti – masculine plural or masculine and feminine plural form of the title bestowed on those who have retired from active service, but have retained their rank or title. It is not italicized.

Note that emeritus status may only be conferred by formal vote of the board of trustees. To check whether someone is retired or has been declared emeritus, check the lists of officers (of government, of instruction, of administration) in the Bowdoin College Catalogue.

emeritus – masculine singular form of the title bestowed on one who has retired from active service but has retained his rank or title. It is not italicized.

Note that emeritus status may only be conferred by formal vote of the board of trustees. To check whether someone is retired or has been declared emeritus, check the lists of officers (of government, of instruction, of administration) in the Bowdoin College Catalogue.

en-dash and em-dash – these dashes are so named because they are designed to equal the width of the letters n and m respectively. In general, an en-dash is most often used with numbers, and an em-dash signifies a break or offset in text. The dashes are not surrounded by spaces.

Correct en-dash: Commencement Weekend May 26–28

Incorrect en-dash: Commencement Weekend May 26 – 28

Correct em-dash: His children—Tom, Dick, and Mary—all became doctors.

Incorrect em-dash: His children — Tom, Dick, and Mary — all became doctors. (Note: Use of the spaces around the em-dash is correct in Associated Press style.)

To type an en-dash, use option-hyphen; for an em-dash, use option-shift-hyphen.

ensure – to make sure or certain; do not use “insure” in its place.

entitled – showing entitlement; does not reference the name of a book, presentation, etc.

Incorrect: She wrote a book entitled Gone With the Wind.
Correct: She wrote a book titled Gone With the Wind.

Equal Opportunity Employer – the following text is required in all College publications that are likely to be used for recruitment of students or employees:

Bowdoin College complies with applicable provisions of federal and state laws that prohibit discrimination in employment, admission, or access to its educational or extracurricular programs, activities, or facilities based on race, color, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and/or expression, age, marital status, place of birth, veteran status, or against qualified individuals with disabilities on the basis of disability. 

 

The information in this Catalogue was accurate at the time of publication. However, Bowdoin College reserves the right to make changes at any time without prior notice to any of the information, including but not limited to course offerings, degree requirements, regulations, policies, procedures, and charges. The College provides the information herein solely for the convenience of the reader, and to the extent permissible by law, expressly disclaims any liability that may otherwise be incurred.