Location: Bowdoin / The College Catalogue / Courses / Environmental Studies / Courses

The College Catalogue

Environmental Studies – Courses

First-Year Seminars

For a full description of first-year seminars, see the First-Year Seminar section.

1004 c. A Global History of Food. Fall 2014. Thomas Fleischman. (Same as History 1004.)

[1015 {15} c. Frontier Crossings: The Western Experience in American History. (Same as History 1020 {15}.)]

1011 c. Why Architecture Matters. Fall 2014. Jill Pearlman. (Same as Art History 1011.)

1026 b. Landscape, Energy, and Culture. Fall 2014. Shaun Golding. (Same as Sociology 1026.)

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses

1056 {56} a - INS. Ecology and Society. Spring 2016. Vladimir Douhovnikoff.

Presents an overview of ecology covering basic ecological principles and the relationship between human activity and the ecosystems that support us. Examines how ecological processes, both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living), influence the life history of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Encourages student investigation of environmental interactions and how human-influenced disturbance is shaping the environment. Required field trips illustrate the use of ecological concepts as tools for interpreting local natural history. (Same as Biology 1056 {56}.)

1083 a - MCSR, INS. Energy, Physics, and Technology. Fall 2014. Madeleine Msall.

How much can we do to reduce the disruptions of the Earth’s physical, ecological, and social systems caused by global climate change? How much climate change itself can we avoid? A lot depends on the physical processes that govern the extraction, transmission, storage, and use of available energy. Introduces the physics of solar, wind, nuclear, and hydroelectric power and discusses the physical constraints on their efficiency, productivity, and safety. Reviews current technology and quantitatively analyzes the effectiveness of different strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Not open to students who have credit for Physics 1140 {104}. (Same as Physics 1083.)

[1090 {90} a - INS. Understanding Climate Change. (Same as Biology 1090 {90}.)]

1101 {101}. Our Earth: Introduction to Environmental Studies. Every fall. Matthew Klingle and John Lichter.

An interdisciplinary introduction to the environment framed by perspectives from the natural sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities. Surveys past and present status of scientific knowledge about major global and regional problems, explores both successes and inadequacies of environmental ideas to address specific crises, and assesses potential responses of governments, corporations, and individuals. Topics include food and agriculture, pollution, fisheries, and climate change and energy. Other subjects include biodiversity, population, urbanization, consumption, environmental justice, human and ecological health, and sustainability.

1102 {102} a - INS. Oceanography. Every spring. Spring 2015. Collin Roesler.

The fundamentals of geological, physical, chemical, and biological oceanography. Topics include tectonic evolution of the ocean basins; deep sea sedimentation as a record of ocean history; global ocean circulation, waves, and tides; chemical cycles; ocean ecosystems and productivity; and the oceans’ role in climate change. Weekly labs and fieldwork demonstrate these principles in the setting of Casco Bay and the Gulf of Maine. Students complete a field-based research project on coastal oceanography. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 1505 {102}.)

1104 {104} a - MCSR, INS. Environmental Geology and Hydrology. Every spring. Spring 2015. Peter Lea.

An introduction to aspects of geology and hydrology that affect the environment and land use. Topics include lakes, watersheds and surface-water quality, groundwater contamination, coastal erosion, and/or landslides. Weekly labs and field trips examine local environmental problems affecting Maine’s rivers, lakes, and coast. Students complete a community-based research project. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 1305 {104}.)

1155 c - IP. Into the Wild: Untamed Nature in German-Speaking Culture. Spring 2015. Jens Klenner.

An examination of the mix of conflicting ideas that shape the many conceptions of “wilderness.” Explores the ideas of wilderness as a space without or preceding culture and civilization, the wilderness as a mental state, and as an aesthetic experience. Considers the place of wilderness in the ‘urban jungle’ of cities. Among other topics, discusses the discovery of the Alps and interrogates the differing German, Austrian, and Swiss perspectives of that mountainous region, but also shows how these European imaginations define American conceptions of mountains. Puts German, Austrian, and Swiss theories and images of wilderness into dialogue with Anglo-American conceptions by comparing literary works, film, artworks, and philosophical texts. No knowledge of German is required. (Same as German 1155.)

2004 {204} a - MCSR. Understanding Place: GIS and Remote Sensing. Every year. Spring 2015. Eileen Johnson.

Geographical information systems (GIS) organize and store spatial information for geographical presentation and analysis. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps and enable powerful and sophisticated investigation of spatial patterns and interrelationships. Introduces concepts of cartography, database management, remote sensing, and spatial analysis. The productive use of GIS and Remote Sensing technology with an emphasis on the biophysical sciences and environmental management is investigated through a variety of applied exercises and problems culminating in a semester project that addresses a specific environmental application.

[2083 {283} c. Environmental Education.]

2201 {201} a - MCSR, INS. Perspectives in Environmental Science. Every spring. Phil Camill and Dharni Vasudevan.

Functioning of the earth system is defined by the complex and fascinating interaction of processes within and between four principal spheres: land, air, water, and life. Leverages key principles of environmental chemistry and ecology to unravel the intricate connectedness of natural phenomena and ecosystem function. Fundamental biological and chemical concepts are used to understand the science behind the environmental dilemmas facing societies as a consequence of human activities. Laboratory sessions consist of local field trips, laboratory experiments, group research, case study exercises, and discussions of current and classic scientific literature. (Same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100 {100} or higher in biology, chemistry, earth and oceanographic science, or physics.

2221 {200} a. Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change. Every fall. Fall 2014.
Philip Camill.

Understanding global change requires knowing how the biosphere, geosphere, oceans, ice, and atmosphere interact. An introduction to earth system science, emphasizing the critical interplay between the physical and living worlds. Key processes include energy flow and material cycles, soil development, primary production and decomposition, microbial ecology and nutrient transformations, and the evolution of life on geochemical cycles in deep time. Terrestrial, wetland, lake, river, estuary, and marine systems are analyzed comparatively. Applied issues are emphasized as case studies, including energy efficiency of food production, acid rain impacts on forests and aquatic systems, forest clearcutting, wetland delineation, eutrophication of coastal estuaries, ocean fertilization, and global carbon sinks. Lectures and three hours of laboratory or fieldwork per week. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100–1999 {101–105} in earth and oceanographic science; or Biology 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}; or Chemistry 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}; or Environmental Studies 1102 {102}, 1104 {104} or 1515 {105}.

2223 {210} a - MCSR, INS. Plant Physiology. Fall 2014. Samuel H. Taylor.

An introduction to the physiological processes that enable plants to grow under the varied conditions found in nature. General topics discussed include the acquisition, transport, and use of water and mineral nutrients; photosynthetic carbon assimilation; and the influence of environmental and hormonal signals on development and morphology. Adaptation and acclimation to extreme environments and other ecophysiological subjects are also discussed. Weekly laboratories reinforce principles discussed in lecture and expose students to modern research techniques. (Same as Biology 2210 {210}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2224 {215} a - MCSR, INS. Behavioral Ecology and Population Biology. Every fall. Nathaniel T. Wheelwright.

Study of the behavior of animals and plants and the interactions between organisms and their environment. Topics include population growth and structure and the influence of competition, predation, and other factors on the behavior, abundance, and distribution of plants and animals. Laboratory sessions, field trips, and research projects emphasize concepts in ecology, evolution and behavior, research techniques, and the natural history of local plants and animals. Optional weekend field trip to Monhegan Island or the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent Island. (Same as Biology 2315 {215}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2225 {225} a - MCSR, INS. Biodiversity and Conservation Science. Fall 2015. John Lichter.

People rely on nature for food, materials, medicines, and recreation; yet the fate of Earth’s biodiversity is rarely given priority among the many pressing problems facing humanity today. Explores the interactions within and among populations of plants, animals, and microorganisms and the mechanisms by which those interactions are regulated by the physical and chemical environment. Major themes are biodiversity and the processes that maintain biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function, and the science underlying conservation efforts. Laboratory sessions consist of student research, local field trips, laboratory exercises, and discussions of current and classic ecological literature. (Same as Biology 2325 {225}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or Environmental Studies 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}).

2229 {219} a - MCSR, INS. Biology of Marine Organisms. Every fall. Amy Johnson.

The study of the biology and ecology of marine mammals, seabirds, fish, intertidal and subtidal invertebrates, algae, and plankton. Also considers the biogeographic consequences of global and local ocean currents on the evolution and ecology of marine organisms. Laboratories, field trips, and research projects emphasize natural history, functional morphology, and ecology. Lectures and four hours of laboratory or field trip per week. One weekend field trip included. (Same as Biology 2319 {219}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2233 a - MCSR. Marine Molecular Ecology and Evolution. Fall 2014. Sarah Kingston.

Features the application of molecular data to ecological and evolutionary problems in the sea. Hands-on laboratory work introduces students to sampling, generation, and analysis of molecular data sets with Sanger-based technology and Next Generation Sequencing. Lectures, discussions, and computer-based simulations demonstrate the relevant theoretical principles of population genetics and phylogenetics. A class project begins a long-term sampling program using DNA barcoding to understand temporal and spatial change in the ocean. Taught at the Bowdoin Marine Laboratory. (Same as Biology 2330.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}, and a course in mathematics; or permission of the instructor.

2234 a. Dimensions of Marine Biodiversity. Fall 2014. David Carlon.

Focused laboratory and fieldwork that integrates across the genetic, systematic, and functional aspects of marine biodiversity to understand the ecological and evolutionary significance of biodiversity. Illustrates this approach by featuring three to four different evolutionary clades that are the foundations of different marine communities (e.g. coastal zooplankton, rocky intertidal, soft-bottom benthos, tropical coral reefs, and marine mammals). Taught at the Bowdoin Marine Laboratory. (Same as Biology 3301.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}, and a course in mathematics; or permission of the instructor.

[2250 {205} a - INS. Earth, Ocean, and Society. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2020 {205}.)]

2251 {251} a. Marine Biogeochemistry. Spring 2015. Michèle LaVigne.

Oceanic cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients play a key role in linking global climate change, marine primary productivity, and ocean acidification. Fundamental concepts of marine biogeochemistry used to assess potential consequences of future climate scenarios on chemical cycling in the ocean. Past climate transitions evaluated as potential analogs for future change, using select case studies of published paleoceanographic proxy records derived from corals, ice cores, and deep-sea sediments. Weekly laboratory sections and student research projects focus on creating and interpreting new geochemical paleoclimate records from marine archives and predicting future impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine calcifiers. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2525 {252}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100–1999 {100–105} in earth and oceanographic science or Environmental Studies 1102 {102}, 1104 {104}, or 1515 {105}; and Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}).

2253 {253} a. Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics. Every other fall. Fall 2015. Mark O. Battle.

A mathematically rigorous analysis of the motions of the atmosphere and oceans on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Covers fluid dynamics in inertial and rotating reference frames, as well as global and local energy balance, applied to the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Studies 2810 {257} and Physics 2810 {257}.)

Prerequisite: Physics 1140 {104} or permission of the instructor.

2255 {211} a - INS. Environmental Chemistry. Spring 2015. Dharni Vasudevan.

Focuses on two key processes that influence human and wildlife exposure to potentially harmful substances—chemical speciation and transformation. Equilibrium principles as applied to acid-base, complexation, precipitation, and dissolution reactions are used to explore organic and inorganic compound speciation in natural and polluted waters; quantitative approaches are emphasized. Weekly laboratory sections are concerned with the detection and quantification of organic and inorganic compounds in air, water, and soils/sediments. (Same as Chemistry 2050 {205} and Earth and Oceanographic Science 2325 {206}.)

Prerequisite: Chemistry 1109 {109}, placement in chemistry at the 2000 level, or a course numbered 2000–2969 {200–289} in chemistry.

2268 a - MCSR, INS. Molecular Ecology. Spring 2015. David Carlon.

Develops the theory and practical skills to apply genetic data to ecological questions. Topics include population connectivity and dispersal, mating systems, detecting natural selection in the wild, and the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. Lectures and discussions develop theoretical understanding through worked examples. The laboratory provides hands-on experience in generating genetic data from marine populations, including modules on sampling design, DNA/RNA extraction, Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing technology, and data analysis through modeling. (Same as Biology 2551.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or 2100 {210} or higher, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2270 {270} a. Landscapes and Global Change. Every other fall. Fall 2014. Peter Lea.

The earth’s surface is marked by the interactions of the atmosphere, water and ice, biota, tectonics, and underlying rock and soil. Even familiar landscapes beget questions on how they formed, how they might change, and how they relate to patterns at both larger and smaller scales. Examines Earth’s landscapes and the processes that shape them, with particular emphasis on how future changes may both influence and be influenced by humans. Topics include specific land-shaping agents (rivers, glaciers, landslides, groundwater), as well as how these agents interact with one another and with changing climate, tectonics, and human activities. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2345 {270}.)

Prerequisite: Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200}(same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}).

2271 {271} a. Biology of Marine Mammals. Fall 2014. Damon P. Gannon.

Examines the biology of cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters. Topics include diversity, evolution, morphology, physiology, ecology, behavior, and conservation. Detailed consideration given to the adaptations that allow these mammals to live in the sea. Includes lecture, discussion of primary literature, lab, field trips, and student-selected case studies. Laboratory and field exercises consider anatomy, biogeography, social organization, foraging ecology, population dynamics, bioacoustics, and management of the marine mammal species found in the Gulf of Maine. (Same as Biology 2571 {271}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1154 {154} (same as Environmental Studies 1154 {154}), 1158 {158} (same as Chemistry 1105 {105} and Environmental Studies 2201 {201}), 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2316 {216}, 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325{225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}).

2274 {274} a - MCSR, INS. Marine Conservation Biology. Fall 2015. Damon P. Gannon.

Introduces key biological concepts that are essential for understanding conservation issues. Explores biodiversity in the world’s major marine ecosystems; the mechanisms of biodiversity loss at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels; and the properties of marine systems that pose unique conservation challenges. Investigates the theory and practice of marine biodiversity conservation, focusing on the interactions among ecology, economics, and public policy. Consists of lecture/discussion, lab, field trips, guest seminars by professionals working in the field, and student-selected case studies. (Same as Biology 2574 {274}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1154 {154} (same as Environmental Studies 1154 {154}), 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325 {225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}); Environmental Studies 1101 {101} or 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}); or permission of the instructor.

[2280 {280} a. Plant Responses to the Environment. (Same as Biology 2580 {280}.)]

2281 {281} a. Forest Ecology and Conservation. Fall 2014. Vladimir Douhovnikoff.

An examination of how forest ecology and the principles of silviculture inform forest ecosystem restoration and conservation. Explores ecological dynamics of forest ecosystems, the science of managing forests for tree growth and other goals, natural history and historic use of forest resources, and the state of forests today, as well as challenges and opportunities in forest restoration and conservation. Consists of lecture, discussions, field trips, and guest seminars by professionals working in the field. (Same as Biology 2581 {281}.)

2282 {282} a - MCSR, INS. Ocean and Climate. Every other fall. Fall 2014. Collin Roesler.

The ocean covers more than 70 percent of Earth’s surface. It has a vast capacity to modulate variations in global heat and carbon dioxide, thereby regulating climate and ultimately life on Earth. Beginning with an investigation of paleoclimate records preserved in deep-sea sediment cores and in Antarctic and Greenland glacial ice cores, explores the patterns of natural climate variations with the goal of understanding historic climate change observations. Predictions of future polar glacial and sea ice, sea level, ocean temperatures, and ocean acidity investigated through readings and discussions of scientific literature. Weekly laboratory sessions devoted to field trips, laboratory experiments, and computer-based data analysis and modeling to provide hands-on experiences for understanding the time and space scales of processes governing oceans, climate, and ecosystems. Laboratory exercises form the basis for student research projects. Mathematics 1700 {171} is recommended. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2585 {282}.)

Prerequisite: Earth and Oceanographic Science 1505 {102} (same as Environmental Studies 1102 {102}) or 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}), and Mathematics 1600 {161}.

[2287 {287} a. Poles Apart: An Exploration of Earth’s High Latitudes. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Studies 2530 {287}.)]

2301 {207} b - MCSR. Building Resilient Communities. Fall 2014. Eileen Johnson.

Examines efforts by communities and regions to build resilience in the face of changing environmental and social conditions. Examines how local leaders can work in complex settings to set goals and mobilize federal, private, and non-profit resources to achieve specific, cross-cutting objectives that include strengthening local economies, safeguarding important environmental values, protecting public health, and addressing issues of economic and social justice. Provides students with firsthand understanding of how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) play an increasingly important role in understanding and informing effective approaches for expanding resilience at a community level by integrating social and natural data to inform policy decision. Students learn GIS as part of the course.

Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 1101 {101}.

2303 {228} b - MCSR. Natural Resource Economics and Policy. Spring 2015. Guillermo Herrera.

A study of the economic issues surrounding the existence and use of renewable natural resources (e.g., forestry/land use, fisheries, water, ecosystems, and the effectiveness of antibiotics) and exhaustible resources (e.g., minerals, fossil fuels, and old growth forest). A basic framework is first developed for determining economically efficient use of resources over time, then extended to consider objectives other than efficiency, as well as the distinguishing biological, ecological, physical, political, and social attributes of each resource. Uncertainty, common property, and various regulatory instruments are discussed, as well as alternatives to government intervention and/or privatization. (Same as Economics 2228 {228}.)

Prerequisite: Economics 1101 {101}, 1050, or earned 1101 through placement.

2304 {240} b. Environmental Law and Policy. Fall 2015. Conrad Schneider.

Critical examination of some of the most important American environmental laws and their application to environmental problems that affect the United States and the world. Students learn what the law currently requires and how it is administered by federal and state agencies and are encouraged to examine the effectiveness of current law and consider alternative approaches.

2306 {236} b - IP. Comparative Environmental Politics. Spring 2015. Laura A. Henry.

Examines environmental politics from a comparative perspective, drawing on case material from the United States, Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Asks why, despite the fact that many contemporary environmental problems are shared globally, states develop different environmental policies. Readings cover issues ranging from forest conservation to climate policy and consider explanatory factors such as type of political regime, level of economic development, activism by citizens, and culture and values. (Same as Government 2484 {235}.)

[2308 {263} b. International Environmental Policy. (Same as Government 2615 {263}.)]

[2311 {237} b. Changing Cultures and Dynamic Environments. (Same as Anthropology 2170 {270}.)]

2312 {272} b - ESD, IP. Contemporary Arctic Environmental and Cultural Issues. Spring 2015. Susan Kaplan.

Throughout the Arctic, northern peoples face major environmental changes and cultural and economic challenges. Landscapes, icescapes, and seascapes on which communities rely are being transformed, and arctic plants and animals are being affected. Many indigenous groups see these dramatic changes as endangering their health and cultural way of life. Others see a warming Arctic as an opportunity for industrial development. Addressing contemporary issues that concern northern peoples in general and Inuit in particular involves understanding connections between leadership, global environmental change, human rights, indigenous cultures, and foreign policies, and being able to work on both a global and local level. (Same as Anthropology 2572 {272}.)

Prerequisite: Anthropology 1050 {102} or 1101 {101}, and Environmental Studies 1101 {101}; or permission of the instructor.

[2332 {222} b - ESD. Introduction to Human Population. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 2224 {224} and Sociology 2222 {222}.)]

2334 {221} b. Environmental Sociology. Spring 2015. Shaun Golding.

Applies sociological insights to investigating the ways that humans shape and are shaped by their ecological surroundings. Introduces theories and concepts for exploring how western society and, more specifically, contemporary American society interact with nature. Reviews central academic questions, including social constructions of nature and perceptions of ecological risks and, drawing from complementary readings and student-led dialogue, examines in greater depth ongoing struggles over conservation, sustainability, development, and social justice. (Same as Sociology 2221 {221}.)

Prerequisite: Sociology 1101 {101} or Anthropology 1101 {101}.

[2340 {234} b - ESD. Tractors, Chainsaws, Windmills, and Cul-de-Sacs: Natural Resource-Based Development in Our Backyard. (Same as Sociology 2340 {234}.)]

[2369 {269} b - IP. Environmental Security. (Same as Government 2689 {269}.)]

2403 {203} c - ESD. Environment and Culture in North American History. Every spring. Connie Chiang or Matthew Klingle. Spring 2015. Matthew Klingle.

Explores relationships between ideas of nature, human transformations of the environment, and the effect of the physical environment upon humans through time in North America. Topics include the “Columbian exchange” and colonialism; links between ecological change and race, class, and gender relations; the role of science and technology; literary and artistic perspectives of “nature”; agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization; and the rise of modern environmentalism. (Same as History 2182 {242}.)

Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 1101 {101} or permission of the instructor.

2416 {250} c - ESD. California Dreamin’: A History of the Golden State. Spring 2015. Connie Chiang.

Seminar. Sunshine, beaches, shopping malls, and movie stars are the popular stereotypes of California, but social conflicts and environmental degradation have long tarnished the state’s golden image. Unravels the myth of the California dream by examining the state’s social and environmental history from the end of Mexican rule and the discovery of gold in 1848 to the twenty-first century. Major topics include immigration and racial violence; radical and conservative politics; extractive and high-tech industries; environmental disasters; urban, suburban, and rural divides; and California in American popular culture. (Same as History 2640 {250}.)

2420 c. The History of Energy. Fall 2014. David Hecht.

Explores how and why Americans (and others) have made the energy choices that they have. The production and distribution of energy is one of the key challenges for modern societies. It involves the development of specific technologies and industries—from fossil fuels to solar power to nuclear plants. But the history of energy transcends the technical. It intersects with law, politics, and economics; social norms and cultural values play a role as well. The connections between the technical and non-technical are central to understanding the history of energy itself, as well as its place in the history of the modern Unites States. (Same as History 2202.)

2423 {216} c. Telling Environmental Stories. Fall 2014. Anthony Walton.

Intended for students with a demonstrated interest in environmental studies, as an introduction to several modes of storytelling, which communicate ideas, historical narratives, personal experiences, and scientific and social issues in this increasingly important area of study and concern. Explores various techniques, challenges, and pleasures of storytelling, and examines some of the demands and responsibilities involved in the conveyance of different types of information with clarity and accuracy in nonfiction narrative. Engages student writing through the workshop method and incorporates study of several texts, including The Control of Nature, Cadillac Desert, Living Downstream, and Field Notes from a Catastrophe. (Same as English 2854 {213}.)

[2425 {235} c - ESD. Borderlands and Empires in Early North America. (Same as History 2180 {235} and Latin American Studies 2180 {236}.)]

2431 {243} c - VPA. Modern Architecture: 1750 to 2000. Fall 2015. Jill Pearlman.

Examines major buildings, architects, architectural theories, and debates during the modern period with a strong emphasis on Europe through 1900 and both the United States and Europe in the twentieth century. Central issues of concern include architecture as an important carrier of historical, social, and political meaning; changing ideas of history and progress in built form; and the varied architectural responses to industrialization. Attempts to develop students’ visual acuity and ability to interpret architectural form while exploring these and other issues. (Same as Art History 2430 {243}.)

2432 {232} c - ESD. History of the American West. Fall 2014. Connie Chiang.

Survey of what came to be called the Western United States from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include Euro-American relations with Native Americans; the expansion and growth of the federal government into the West; the exploitation of natural resources; the creation of borders and national identities; race, class, and gender relations; the influence of immigration and emigration; violence and criminality; cities and suburbs; and the enduring persistence of Western myths in American culture. Students write several papers and engage in weekly discussion based upon primary and secondary documents, art, literature, and film. (Same as History 2160 {232}.)

2438 {238} c. Natural Supernaturalism. Spring 2015. David Collings.

Examines the Romantic attempt to blend aspects of the transcendental—such as the sublime, immortality, and divinity—with ordinary life, the forms of nature, and the resources of human consciousness. Discusses theories of the sublime, poetry of the English landscape, mountaintop experiences, tales of transfiguration, and evocations of intimacy with nature. Explores the difficulties of representing the transcendental in secular poetry and the consequences of natural supernaturalism for our own understanding of nature. Authors include Burke, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Kant, and Shelley. (Same as English 2352 {238}.)

2444 {244} c - VPA. City, Anti-City, Utopia: Building Urban America. Spring 2016. Jill Pearlman.

Explores the evolution of the American city from the beginning of industrialization to the present age of mass communications. Focuses on the underlying explanations for the American city’s physical form by examining cultural values, technological advancement, aesthetic theories, and social structure. Major figures, places, and schemes in the areas of urban design and architecture, social criticism, and reform are considered. (Same as History 2006 {244}.)

2445 {245} c - VPA. The Nature of Frank Lloyd Wright. Spring 2015. Jill Pearlman.

An in-depth investigation of the buildings of North America’s most celebrated architect, with emphasis on the major theme of his work—the complex relationship between architecture and nature. Examines Wright’s key projects for a diverse range of environments and regions while also placing the master builder and his works into a larger historical, cultural, and architectural context. Engages in a critical analysis of the rich historical literature that Wright has evoked in recent decades, along with the prolific writings of the architect himself. Note: This course counts toward the art history requirement for the visual arts major and minor.

2447 {247} c. Maine: A Community and Environmental History. Spring 2016. Sarah McMahon.

Seminar. Examines the evolution of various Maine social and ecological communities—inland, hill country, and coastal. Begins with the contact of European and Native American cultures, examines the transfer of English and European agricultural traditions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and explores the development of diverse geographic, economic, ethnic, and cultural communities during the nineteenth and into the early twentieth centuries. (Same as History 2607 {247}.)

Prerequisite: One course in history or permission of the instructor.

2448 {258} c. Environmental Ethics. Spring 2015. Lawrence H. Simon.

What things in nature have moral standing? What are our obligations to them? How should we resolve conflicts among our obligations? After an introduction to ethical theory, topics include anthropocentrism, the moral status of nonhuman sentient beings and of non-sentient living beings, preservation of endangered species and the wilderness, holism versus individualism, the land ethic, and deep ecology. (Same as Philosophy 2358 {258}.)

2459 c. Ethics of Climate Change. Spring 2016. Kristi Olson.

Examines moral questions raised by climate change, including: What would constitute a just allocation of burdens? What do we collectively owe to future generations? If collective action fails, what are our obligations as individuals? When, if at all, is civil disobedience justified? Readings drawn primarily from contemporary philosophy. (Same as Philosophy 2359.)

2461 c - VPA. Seashore Digital Diaries. Fall 2014. David Conover.

Exploration of techniques and principles of digital multimedia as tools of inquiry at the seashore. Through assigned and self-designed independent and group projects, studies the seashore as a zone of extremity and movement, in light of its historical and contemporary contexts within the visual arts and film. Techniques introduced include time-lapse sequences of seascape and aquaria, portraits of characters on the working waterfront, and motion graphic visualizations. Seminar discussions, biweekly field trips to the seashore, and class critiques. (Same as Film Studies 2110 and Visual Arts 2110.)

Prerequisite: one course in cinema studies, environmental studies or visual arts.

2462 c - VPA. Reel Places: Framing Interactions between Humans and their Environments. Fall 2014. Sarah Childress.

Considers place as a way to examine how humans experience and engage the world. Of particular interest are how filmmakers create plausible worlds, how place transcends setting to become a character or collaborator in film narratives from around the world, how film texts are tied to the contexts of their making, and how the social spaces of film viewing shape reception. Attendance at weekly evening screenings is required, as is a willingness to participate in off-campus commercial theater and film festival screenings. (Same as Film Studies 2262.)

2463 c - VPA. Science to Story, Digital, and Beyond. Spring 2015. David Conover.

Examines the translation of science into stories and digital media that successfully engage public attention. What enables ordinary citizens to form an understanding consistent with the best available scientific evidence? What gets in the way of forming such an understanding? What communication strategies and formats successfully move science to civic society? Case studies include translation of the following areas of climate change science: synthetic biology and algae as biofuel, ocean acidification, rising sea levels, and super storms. Class reading and writing assignments and seminar discussions lead to development of group presentations and production of digital media. (Same as Cinema Studies 2120 and Visual Arts 2120.)

Prerequisite: one course in cinema studies, environmental studies or visual arts.

[2473 {273} c. Drawing on Science. (Same as Visual Arts 2202 {271}.)]

2475 c - IP, VPA. Ecocinema: China’s Ecological and Environmental Crisis. Spring 2015 and Spring 2017. Shu-chin Tsui.

Examines how China’s economic development has caused massive destruction to the natural world and how environmental degradation affects the lives of ordinary people. An ecological and environmental catastrophe unfolds through the camera lens in feature films and documentaries. Central topics include the interactions between urbanization and migration, humans and animals, eco-aesthetics and manufactured landscapes, local communities and globalization. Considers how cinema, as mass media and visual medium, provides ecocritical perspectives that influence ways of seeing the built environment.

The connections between cinema and environmental studies will enable students to explore across disciplinary as well as national boundaries. Note: Fulfills the film theory requirement for cinema studies minors. (Same as Asian Studies 2075 and Cinema Studies 2075.)

[2480 {248} c - IP. Italians at Sea: Exploration, Love, and Disaster from the Mediterranean to the Seven Seas. (Same as Italian 2525 {225}.)]

[2485 {285} c. Ecological Thought in Latin American Literature. (Same as Latin American Studies 3245 {345} and Spanish 3245 {345}.)]

2970–2973 {291–294}. Intermediate Independent Study in Environmental Studies. The Program.

2999 {299}. Intermediate Collaborative Study in Environmental Studies. The Program.

3902 {302} a. Earth Climate History. Spring 2015. Philip Camill.

The modern world is experiencing rapid climate warming and some parts extreme drought, which will have dramatic impacts on ecosystems and human societies. How do contemporary warming and aridity compare to past changes in climate over the last billion years? Are modern changes human-caused or part of the natural variability in the climate system? What effects did past changes have on global ecosystems and human societies? Students use environmental records from rocks, soils, ocean cores, ice cores, lake cores, fossil plants, and tree rings to assemble proxies of past changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and disturbance to examine several issues: long-term carbon cycling and climate, major extinction events, the rise of C4 photosynthesis and the evolution of grazing mammals, orbital forcing and glacial cycles, glacial refugia and post-glacial species migrations, climate change and the rise and collapse of human civilizations, climate/overkill hypothesis of Pleistocene megafauna, climate variability, drought cycles, climate change impacts on disturbances (fire and hurricanes), and determining natural variability vs. human-caused climate change. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 3020 {302}.)

Prerequisite: Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}), or permission of the instructor.

3906 {306} a. Transformation of Organic Chemicals in the Environment. Fall 2014. Dharni Vasudevan.

Human activities result in the intentional or inadvertent release of organic chemicals into the natural environment. Interconnected physical, chemical, and biological processes influence the environmental fate of chemicals and the extent of human and ecosystem exposure. Focuses on the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical transformations in the natural environment via nucleophilic, redox, photolytic, and biological (microbial) reactions. (Same as Chemistry 3060 {306}.)

Prerequisite: Chemistry 2250 {225}.

3918 {318} b. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. Fall 2014. Guillermo Herrera.

Seminar. Analysis of externalities and market failure; models of optimum control of pollution and efficient management of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources such as fisheries, forests, and minerals; governmental vs. other forms of control of common-pool resources; and benefit-cost analysis of policies, including market-based and non-market valuation. Permission of instructor required during add/drop for students who have credit for Economics 2218 {218} (same as Environmental Studies 2302 {218}) or 2228 {228} (same as Environmental Studies 2303 {228}). (Same as Economics 3518 {318}.)

Prerequisite: Economics 2555 {255} and 2557 {257}.

3920 {320} b. Animal Planet: Humans and Other Animals. Fall 2014. Susan Kaplan.

Cultures around the world maintain different stances about non-human animals. People eat meat or avoid doing so. Religions advocate veneration, fear, or loathing of certain animals. Domesticated animals provide us company, labor, and food. Wild animals are protected, studied, photographed, captured, and hunted. Animals inhabit novels, are featured in art, and adorn merchandise. Students read ethnographies, articles, animal rights literature, and children’s books; study museum collections; and examine animal themes in films and on the web. Employing anthropological perspectives, considers what distinguishes humans from other animals, how cultures are defined by peoples’ attitudes about animals, and what might be our moral and ethical responsibilities to other creatures. (Same as Anthropology 3210 {321}.)

Prerequisite: Anthropology 1101{101} or 1150{102}, and one course numbered 2000-2969 {200-289} in anthropology; or permission of the instructor.

3943 {343} a. Tectonics and Climate. Spring 2015. Emily Peterman.

Exploration of the complex interactions between tectonics and climate. Discussion of current research is emphasized by reading primary literature, through class discussions and presentations, and by writing scientific essays. The emphasis on current research means topics may vary, but will include topographic growth of mountain belts and Cenozoic climate change. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 3140{343}.)

Prerequisite: Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}), or permission of the instructor.

3957 {357} a. The Physics of Climate. Every other spring.Spring 2015. Mark Battle.

A rigorous treatment of the earth’s climate, based on physical principles. Topics include climate feedbacks, sensitivity to perturbations, and the connections between climate and radiative transfer, atmospheric composition, and large-scale circulation of the oceans and atmospheres. Anthropogenic climate change also studied. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 3050 {357} and Physics 3810 {357}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Physics 2150 {229}, 2810 {257}, or 3000 {300}, or permission of the instructor.

3963 {363} b. Advanced Seminar in International Relations: Law, Politics, and the Search for Justice. Spring 2015. Allen L. Springer.

Examines the complex relationship between law and policy in international relations by focusing on two important and rapidly developing areas of international concern: environmental protection and humanitarian rights. Fulfills the environmental studies senior seminar requirement. (Same as Government 3610 {363}.)

3975 {375}. Feeding the World: The Nature and Challenges of Our Food and Agricultural Systems. Spring 2016. Philip Camill.

Although we live in a world where global food abundance is at record highs and prices are at historic lows, our modern food system has its share of challenges. Methods of food production, marketing, distribution, and consumption have spawned waves of criticism, including concerns about farm economics, food justice, worker safety, animal welfare, famine, ecological degradation, climate change, biotechnology, and public health. In the wake of these challenges, alternative systems of food production, distribution, and consumption are beginning to emerge. An interdisciplinary exploration of three questions: How do we produce and eat food? What major social and environmental consequences have arisen from food production and consumption? What should we produce and eat? Examines the historical origins of agriculture, social and environmental problems arising from these transitions, and social movements oriented toward making our food system more ecologically sustainable and socially just. Current or prior enrollment in Environmental Studies 2201 {201}, 2330 {202}, and 2403 {203} is recommended.

Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 1101 {101} or permission of the instructor.

3980 {337} c. Nature and Health in America. Spring 2015. Matthew Klingle.

Explores relationships between humans, environment, and health in North American history from the sixteenth century to the present day. Topics may include the evolution of public health, biomedical research, and clinical practice; folk remedies and popular understandings of health; infectious and chronic diseases; links between landscape, health, and inequality; gender and reproductive health; occupational health and safety; the effects of agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization on human and ecological health; state and federal policies; and the colonial and global dimensions of public health and medicine. Students write a major research paper based on primary sources. Environmental Studies 1101 {101}, 2403 {203}, and at least one history course numbered 2000–2969 {200–289} recommended. (Same as History 3180 {337}.)

3991 {391}. Troubled Waters: Fishing in the Gulf of Maine. Spring 2015. The Program.

Around the world and in the Gulf of Maine, overfishing, threats to habitat, and climate change are putting marine ecosystems and coastal communities under great stress. An interdisciplinary senior seminar draws on oceanography, ecology, history, economics, anthropology, and political science to explore the causes and scope of pressures on the marine environment; the potential for restoring ecosystems, fisheries, and coastal economies; political conflicts over fisheries and related issues; federal, state, and community-based approaches to managing marine ecosystems; and strategies for coping with scientific and management uncertainties.

[3992 {392} c. Advanced Topics in Environmental Philosophy. (Same as Philosophy 3392 {392}.)]

3998 {398} c. The City since 1960. Fall 2014. Jill Pearlman.

Seminar. Focuses on five important developments in the history of the American city (with a brief excursion to London) during the past half-century. Themes include: urban renewal’s rise and fall, historic preservation, gentrification, urban disasters and their aftermaths, and the changing notion of community. Examines these issues in some depth through primary and secondary source readings and, at the end of the course, considers the city today. Throughout the semester, students pursue a research project of their own, culminating in a presentation to the class and a substantial (twenty-five-page) paper.

4000–4003 {401–404}. Advanced Independent Study in Environmental Studies. The Program.

4029 {405}. Advanced Collaborative Study in Environmental Studies. The Program.

4050–4051. Honors Project in Environmental Studies. The Program.

The following courses count toward the requirements of the Interdisciplinary Science Concentration, in addition to ES courses designated with an “a”:

Chemistry 2100 {210} a - MCSR, INS. Chemical Analysis. Every fall. Elizabeth Stemmler.

Chemistry 2400 {240} a - MCSR, INS. Inorganic Chemistry. Every spring.
Jeffrey K. Nagle.

Students may also choose from the following list of courses to satisfy requirements for the major in environmental studies. These courses will receive environmental studies credit with the approval of the director after consultation with the student and the instructor. It is expected that a substantial portion of the student’s research efforts will focus on the environment. In addition to the courses listed below, students may discuss other possibilities with the Environmental Studies Program. For full course descriptions and prerequisites, see the appropriate department listings.

Social Sciences

[Anthropology 1150 {102} b. Introduction to World Prehistory.]

Natural Sciences

Mathematics 2108 {208} a - MCSR. Biomathematics. Fall 2014. Mary Lou Zeeman. (Same as Biology 1174 {174}.)

Mathematics 3108 {304 or 318} a. Advanced Topics in Modeling. Every other spring. Spring 2016. The Department.

Online Catalogue content is current as of August 1, 2014. For most current course information, use the online course finder. Also see Addenda.