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The College Catalogue

Environmental Studies – Courses

First-Year Seminars

For a full description of first-year seminars, see the First-Year Seminar section.

[1012 {12} c. Campus: Architecture and Education in the American College, 1800–2000.]

1015 {15} c. Frontier Crossings: The Western Experience in American History. Spring 2014. Matthew Klingle. (Same as History 1020 {15}.)

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses

1056 {56} a - INS. Ecology and Society. Spring 2015. Vladimir Douhovnikoff.

Presents an overview of ecology covering basic ecological principles and the relationship between human activity and the ecosystems that support us. Examines how ecological processes, both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living), influence the life history of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Encourages student investigation of environmental interactions and how human-influenced disturbance is shaping the environment. Required field trips illustrate the use of ecological concepts as tools for interpreting local natural history. (Same as Biology 1056 {56}.)

1081 {81} a - INS. Physics of the Environment. Every other spring. Spring 2014. Mark Battle.

An introduction to the physics of environmental issues, including past climates, anthropogenic climate change, ozone destruction, and energy production and efficiency. (Same as Physics 1081 {81}.)]

1090 {90} a - INS. Understanding Climate Change. Fall 2013. David Carlon.

Why is the global climate changing and how will biological systems respond? Includes sections on climate systems and climate change, reconstructing ancient climates and past biological responses, predicting future climates and biological responses, climate policy, the energy crisis, and potential solutions. Includes a few field trips and laboratories designed to illustrate approaches to climate change science at the cellular, physiological, and ecological levels. (Same as Biology 1090 {90}.)

1101 {101}. Introduction to Environmental Studies. Every fall. DeWitt John, John Lichter, and Lawrence Simon.

An interdisciplinary introduction from the perspectives of the natural sciences, the social sciences, and moral philosophy to the variety of environmental problems confronting us today. Provides an overview of the state of scientific knowledge about major environmental problems, both global and regional, an analysis of the ethical problems they pose, potential responses of governments and individuals, and an exploration of both the successes and the inadequacies of environmental policy. Topics include air pollution, fisheries, and biodiversity and ecosystems as well as global population, climate change, energy, and sustainability.

1102 {102} a - INS. Oceanography. Every spring. Spring 2014. Collin Roesler. Spring 2015. Michèle LaVigne.

The fundamentals of geological, physical, chemical, and biological oceanography. Topics include tectonic evolution of the ocean basins; deep sea sedimentation as a record of ocean history; global ocean circulation, waves, and tides; chemical cycles; ocean ecosystems and productivity; and the oceans’ role in climate change. Weekly labs and fieldwork demonstrate these principles in the setting of Casco Bay and the Gulf of Maine. Students complete a field-based research project on coastal oceanography. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 1505 {102}.)

1104 {104} a - MCSR, INS. Environmental Geology and Hydrology. Every spring. Spring 2014. Peter Lea.

An introduction to aspects of geology and hydrology that affect the environment and land use. Topics include lakes, watersheds and surface-water quality, groundwater contamination, coastal erosion, and landslides. Weekly labs and field trips examine local environmental problems affecting Maine’s rivers, lakes, and coast. Students complete a community-based research project on Maine water quality. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 1305 {104}.)

[1154 {154} a - INS. Ecology of the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy. (Same as Biology 1154 {154}.)]

2004 {204} a. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. Every year. Fall 2013. Eileen Johnson.

Geographical information systems (GIS) organize and store spatial information for geographical presentation and analysis. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps, and enable powerful and sophisticated investigation of spatial patterns and interrelationships. Introduces concepts of cartography, database management, remote sensing, and spatial analysis. The productive use of GIS technology in the physical and social sciences, environmental management, and regional planning is investigated through a variety of applied exercises and problems culminating in a semester project that addresses a specific environmental application.

2083 {283} c. Environmental Education. Fall 2014. The Program.

Examines the role of environmental education within environmental studies while providing students with the opportunity to gain hands-on experience within a local elementary school. Students read, research, analyze, discuss, and write about theoretical essays, articles, and books from the field of environmental education, in addition to theoretical material on pedagogy and lesson plans. Topics include ecological literacy, the historical roots of environmental education, globalization, sustainable education, and policy implications of environmental education. In addition, students teach at least one hour weekly. Students develop lesson plans and reflect on their experience of teaching environmental education lessons.

Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 1101 {101}.

2201 {201} a - MCSR, INS. Perspectives in Environmental Science. Every spring. Spring 2014. David R. Griffith and John Lichter.

Functioning of the earth system is defined by the complex and fascinating interaction of processes within and between four principal spheres: land, air, water, and life. Leverages key principles of environmental chemistry and ecology to unravel the intricate connectedness of natural phenomena and ecosystem function. Fundamental biological and chemical concepts are used to understand the science behind the environmental dilemmas facing societies as a consequence of human activities. Laboratory sessions consist of local field trips, laboratory experiments, group research, case study exercises, and discussions of current and classic scientific literature. (Same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100 {100} or higher in biology, chemistry, earth and oceanographic science, or physics.

2221 {200} a. Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change. Every fall. Fall 2013. Philip Camill.

Understanding global change requires knowing how the biosphere, geosphere, oceans, ice, and atmosphere interact. An introduction to earth system science, emphasizing the critical interplay between the physical and living worlds. Key processes include energy flow and material cycles, soil development, primary production and decomposition, microbial ecology and nutrient transformations, and the evolution of life on geochemical cycles in deep time. Terrestrial, wetland, lake, river, estuary, and marine systems are analyzed comparatively. Applied issues are emphasized as case studies, including energy efficiency of food production, acid rain impacts on forests and aquatic systems, forest clearcutting, wetland delineation, eutrophication of coastal estuaries, ocean fertilization, and global carbon sinks. Lectures and three hours of laboratory or fieldwork per week. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100–1999 {101–105} in earth and oceanographic science; or Biology 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}; or Chemistry 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}; or Environmental Studies 1102 {102}, 1104 {104} or 1515 {105}.

2223 {210} a - MCSR, INS. Plant Physiology. Fall 2013. Samuel H. Taylor.

An introduction to the physiological processes that enable plants to grow under the varied conditions found in nature. General topics discussed include the acquisition, transport, and use of water and mineral nutrients; photosynthetic carbon assimilation; and the influence of environmental and hormonal signals on development and morphology. Adaptation and acclimation to extreme environments and other ecophysiological subjects are also discussed. Weekly laboratories reinforce principles discussed in lecture and expose students to modern research techniques. (Same as Biology 2210 {210}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or 2100 {210} or higher, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2224 {215} a - MCSR, INS. Behavioral Ecology and Population Biology. Fall 2014. Nathaniel T. Wheelwright.

Study of the behavior of animals and plants, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. Topics include population growth and structure, and the influence of competition, predation, and other factors on the behavior, abundance, and distribution of plants and animals. Laboratory sessions, field trips, and research projects emphasize concepts in ecology, evolution and behavior, research techniques, and the natural history of local plants and animals. Optional field trip to the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent Island. (Same as Biology 2315 {215}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or 2100 {210} or higher, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2225 {225} a - MCSR, INS. Biodiversity and Conservation Science. Fall 2013. John Lichter.

People rely on nature for food, materials, medicines, and recreation; yet the fate of Earth’s biodiversity is rarely given priority among the many pressing problems facing humanity today. Explores the interactions within and among populations of plants, animals, and microorganisms, and the mechanisms by which those interactions are regulated by the physical and chemical environment. Major themes are biodiversity and the processes that maintain biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function, and the science underlying conservation efforts. Laboratory sessions consist of student research, local field trips, laboratory exercises, and discussions of current and classic ecological literature. (Same as Biology 2325 {225}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or 2100 {210} or higher; or Environmental Studies 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}).

2229 {219} a - MCSR, INS. Biology of Marine Organisms. Fall 2013. Amy Johnson.

The study of the biology and ecology of marine mammals, seabirds, fish, intertidal and subtidal invertebrates, algae, and plankton. Also considers the biogeographic consequences of global and local ocean currents on the evolution and ecology of marine organisms. Laboratories, field trips, and research projects emphasize natural history, functional morphology, and ecology. Lectures and four hours of laboratory or field trip per week. One weekend field trip included. (Same as Biology 2319 {219}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or 2100 {210} or higher, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2250 {205} a - INS. Earth, Ocean, and Society. Every spring. Spring 2014. Emily Peterman.

Explores the historical, current, and future demands of society on the natural resources of the earth and the ocean. Discusses the formation and extraction of salt, gold, diamonds, rare earth elements, coal, oil, natural gas, and renewable energies (e.g., tidal, geothermal, solar, wind). Examines how policies for these resources are written and revised to reflect changing societal values. Students complete a research project that explores the intersection of natural resources and society. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2020 {205}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100–1999 {101–105} in earth and oceanographic science, or Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}); or Environmental Studies 1102 {102}, 1104 {104} or 1515 {105}.

2251 {251} a. Marine Biogeochemistry. Spring 2014. Michèle LaVigne.

Oceanic cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients play a key role in linking global climate change, marine primary productivity, and ocean acidification. Fundamental concepts of marine biogeochemistry used to assess potential consequences of future climate scenarios on chemical cycling in the ocean. Past climate transitions evaluated as potential analogs for future change using select case studies of published paleoceanographic proxy records derived from corals, ice cores, and deep-sea sediments. Weekly laboratory sections and student research projects focus on creating and interpreting new geochemical paleoclimate records from marine archives and predicting future impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine calcifiers. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2525 {252}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100–1999 {100–105} in earth and oceanographic science or Environmental Studies 1102 {102}, 1104 {104}, or 1515 {105}; and Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}).

2253 {253} a. Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics. Fall 2013. Mark O. Battle.

A mathematically rigorous analysis of the motions of the atmosphere and oceans on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Covers fluid dynamics in inertial and rotating reference frames, as well as global and local energy balance, applied to the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Studies 2810 {257} and Physics 2810 {257}.)

Prerequisite: Physics 1140 {104} or permission of the instructor.

2255 {211} a - INS. Environmental Chemistry. Spring 2014. David R. Griffith.

Focuses on two key processes that influence human and wildlife exposure to potentially harmful substances—chemical speciation and transformation. Equilibrium principles as applied to acid-base, complexation, precipitation, and dissolution reactions are used to explore organic and inorganic compound speciation in natural and polluted waters; quantitative approaches are emphasized. Weekly laboratory sections are concerned with the detection and quantification of organic and inorganic compounds in air, water, and soils/sediments. (Same as Chemistry 2050 {205} and Earth and Oceanographic Science 2325 {206}.)

Prerequisite: Chemistry 1109 {109}, placement in chemistry at the 2000 level, or a course numbered 2000–2969 {200–289} in chemistry.

2270 {270} a. Landscapes and Global Change. Spring 2015. Peter Lea.

The earth’s surface is marked by the interactions of the atmosphere, water and ice, biota, tectonics, and underlying rock and soil. Even familiar landscapes beget questions on how they formed, how they might change, and how they relate to patterns at both larger and smaller scales. Examines Earth’s landscapes and the processes that shape them, with particular emphasis on how future changes may both influence and be influenced by humans. Topics include specific land-shaping agents (rivers, glaciers, landslides, groundwater), as well as how these agents interact with one another and with changing climate, tectonics, and human activities. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2345 {270}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100–1999 {100–105} in earth and oceanographic science or Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}); or Environmental Studies 1102 {102}, 1104 {104}, or 1515 {105}.

2271 {271} a. Biology of Marine Mammals. Fall 2014. Damon P. Gannon.

Examines the biology of cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters. Topics include diversity, evolution, morphology, physiology, ecology, behavior, and conservation. Detailed consideration given to the adaptations that allow these mammals to live in the sea. Includes lecture, discussion of primary literature, lab, field trips, and student-selected case studies. Laboratory and field exercises consider anatomy, biogeography, social organization, foraging ecology, population dynamics, bioacoustics, and management of the marine mammal species found in the Gulf of Maine. (Same as Biology 2571 {271}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1154 {154} (same as Environmental Studies 1154 {154}), 1158 {158} (same as Chemistry 1105 {105} and Environmental Studies 2201 {201}), 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2316 {216}, 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325{225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}).

2274 {274} a - MCSR, INS. Marine Conservation Biology. Fall 2013. Damon P. Gannon.

Introduces key biological concepts that are essential for understanding conservation issues. Explores biodiversity in the world’s major marine ecosystems; the mechanisms of biodiversity loss at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels; and the properties of marine systems that pose unique conservation challenges. Investigates the theory and practice of marine biodiversity conservation, focusing on the interactions among ecology, economics, and public policy. Consists of lecture/discussion, lab, field trips, guest seminars by professionals working in the field, and student-selected case studies. (Same as Biology 2574 {274}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1154 {154} (same as Environmental Studies 1154 {154}), 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325 {225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}); Environmental Studies 1101 {101} or 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}); or permission of the instructor.

[2280 {280} a. Plant Responses to the Environment. (Same as Biology 2580 {280}.)]

2281 {281} a. Forest Ecology and Conservation. Fall 2014. Vladimir Douhovnikoff.

An examination of how forest ecology and the principles of silviculture inform forest ecosystem restoration and conservation. Explores ecological dynamics of forest ecosystems, the science of managing forests for tree growth and other goals, natural history and historic use of forest resources, and the state of forests today, as well as challenges and opportunities in forest restoration and conservation. Consists of lecture, discussions, field trips, and guest seminars by professionals working in the field. (Same as Biology 2581 {281}.)

2282 {282} a - MCSR, INS. Ocean and Climate. Fall 2016. Collin Roesler.

The ocean covers more than 70 percent of Earth’s surface. It has a vast capacity to modulate variations in global heat and carbon dioxide, thereby regulating climate and ultimately life on Earth. Beginning with an investigation of paleoclimate records preserved in deep-sea sediment cores and in Antarctic and Greenland glacial ice cores, explores the patterns of natural climate variations with the goal of understanding historic climate change observations. Predictions of future polar glacial and sea ice, sea level, ocean temperatures, and ocean acidity investigated through readings and discussions of scientific literature. Weekly laboratory sessions devoted to field trips, laboratory experiments, and computer-based data analysis and modeling to provide hands-on experiences for understanding the time and space scales of processes governing oceans, climate, and ecosystems. Laboratory exercises form the basis for student research projects. Mathematics 1700 {171} is recommended. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 2585 {282}.)

Prerequisite: Earth and Oceanographic Science 1505 {102} (same as Environmental Studies 1102 {102}) or 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}), and Mathematics 1600 {161}.

2287 {287} a. Poles Apart: An Exploration of Earth’s High Latitudes. Every other fall. Fall 2013. Collin Roesler.

The polar regions undergo extreme seasonal variations that dominate the environmental and ecological patterns. Being the coldest regions on the planet they are most sensitive to the recent warming trends induced by anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. In turn the cryospheric and oceanographic responses to warming have complex feedbacks to global climate. The tectonic evolution of modern polar geography, climate, glaciers and sea ice, ocean circulation and ocean biology of the Arctic and Antarctic regions are compared and contrasted. In addition to scientific readings (textbook chapters and journal articles), students will read an array of first-hand accounts of polar exploration from the turn of the twentieth century, such as Fridjof Nansen’s Farthest North, from which many important scientific discoveries were made. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Studies 2530 {287}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100–1999 {100–199} in earth and oceanographic science or Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}); or Environmental Studies 1102 {102}, 1104 {104} or 1515 {105}.

[2302 {218} b - MCSR. Environmental Economics and Policy. (Same as Economics 2218 {218}.)]

2303 {228} b - MCSR. Natural Resource Economics and Policy. Spring 2014. Guillermo Herrera.

A study of the economic issues surrounding the existence and use of renewable natural resources (e.g., forestry/land use, fisheries, water, ecosystems, and the effectiveness of antibiotics) and exhaustible resources (e.g., minerals, fossil fuels, and old growth forest). A basic framework is first developed for determining economically efficient use of resources over time, then extended to consider objectives other than efficiency, as well as the distinguishing biological, ecological, physical, political, and social attributes of each resource. Uncertainty, common property, and various regulatory instruments are discussed, as well as alternatives to government intervention and/or privatization. (Same as Economics 2228 {228}.)

Prerequisite: Economics 1101 {101} or placement above Ecpnomics 1101 {101}.

2304 {240} b. Environmental Law and Policy. Fall 2013. Conrad Schneider.

Critical examination of some of the most important American environmental laws and their application to environmental problems that affect the United States and the world. Students learn what the law currently requires and how it is administered by federal and state agencies, and are encouraged to examine the effectiveness of current law and consider alternative approaches.

[2306 {236} b - IP. Comparative Environmental Politics. (Same as Government 2484 {235}.)]

2308 {263} b. International Environmental Policy. Fall 2013. Allen Springer.

Examines the political, legal, and institutional dimension of international efforts to protect the environment. Problems discussed include transboundary and marine pollution, maintaining biodiversity, and global climate change. (Same as Government 2615 {263}.)

2311 {237} b. Changing Cultures and Dynamic Environments. Spring 2014. Susan Kaplan.

Over the last 20,000 years, the Earth’s environment has changed in both subtle and dramatic ways. Some changes are attributable to natural processes and variation, some have been triggered by human activities. Referring to anthropological and archaeological studies, and research on past and contemporary local, regional, and global environments, examines the complex and diverse relationship between cultures and the Earth’s dynamic environment. A previous science course is recommended. (Same as Anthropology 2170 {270}.)

Prerequisite: Anthropology 1101 {101} Anthropology 1050 {102}, or permission of the instructor.

2332 {222} b - ESD. Introduction to Human Population. Fall 2013. Nancy Riley.

An introduction to the major issues in the study of population. Focuses on the social aspects of the demographic processes of fertility, mortality, and migration. Also examines population change in Western Europe historically, recent demographic changes in Third World countries, population policy, and the social and environmental causes and implications of changes in births, deaths, and migration. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 2224 {224} and Sociology 2222 {222}.)

Prerequisite: Sociology 1101 {101} or Anthropology 1101 {101}.

2334 {221} b. Environmental Sociology. Spring 2014. Shaun Golding.

Applies sociological insights to investigating the ways that humans shape and are shaped by their ecological surroundings. Introduces theories and concepts for exploring how western society and more specifically contemporary American society interact with nature. Reviews central academic questions, including social constructions of nature and perceptions of ecological risks, and drawing from complementary readings and student-led dialogue, examines in greater depth ongoing struggles over conservation, sustainability, development, and social justice. (Same as Sociology 2221 {221}.)

Prerequisite: Sociology 1101 {101} or Anthropology 1101 {101}.

[2340 {234} b - ESD. Tractors, Chainsaws, Windmills, and Cul-de-Sacs: Natural Resource-Based Development in Our Backyard. (Same as Sociology 2340 {234}.)]

[2369 {269} b - IP. Environmental Security. (Same as Government 2689 {269}.)]

2403 {203} c - ESD. Environment and Culture in North American History. Every spring. Spring 2014. Connie Chang.

Explores relationships between ideas of nature, human transformations of the environment, and the effect of the physical environment upon humans through time in North America. Topics include the “Columbian exchange” and colonialism; links between ecological change and race, class, and gender relations; the role of science and technology; literary and artistic perspectives of “nature”; agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization; and the rise of modern environmentalism. (Same as History 2182 {242}.)

Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 1101 {101} or permission of the instructor.

2416 {250} c - ESD. California Dreamin’: A History of the Golden State. Spring 2015. Connie Chiang.

Seminar. Sunshine, beaches, shopping malls, and movie stars are the popular stereotypes of California, but social conflicts and environmental degradation have long tarnished the state’s golden image. Unravels the myth of the California dream by examining the state’s social and environmental history from the end of Mexican rule and the discovery of gold in 1848 to the 2003 election of Arnold Schwarzenegger. Major topics include immigration and racial violence; radical and conservative politics; extractive and high-tech industries; environmental disasters; urban, suburban, and rural divides; and California in American popular culture. (Same as History 2640 {250}.)

2425 {235} c - ESD. Borderlands and Empires in Early North America. Spring 2014. Matthew Klingle.

Survey of the making of North America from initial contact between Europeans and Africans and Native Americans to the creation of the continent’s three largest nations by the mid-nineteenth century: Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Topics include the history of Native populations before and after contact, geopolitical and imperial rivalries that propelled European conquests of the Americas, evolution of free and coerced labor systems, environmental transformations of the continent’s diverse landscapes and peoples, formation of colonial settler societies, and the emergence of distinct national identities and cultures in former European colonies. Students write several papers and engage in weekly discussion based upon primary and secondary documents, art, literature, and material culture. (Same as History 2180 {235} and Latin American Studies 2180 {236}.)

[2427 {227} c - IP. City and Landscape in Modern Europe. (Same as History 2005 {227}.)]

[2431 {243} c - VPA. Modern Architecture: 1750 to 2000. (Same as Art History 2430 {243}.)]

2432 {232} c - ESD. History of the American West. Fall 2014. Connie Chiang.

Survey of what came to be called the Western United States from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include Euro-American relations with Native Americans; the expansion and growth of the federal government into the West; the exploitation of natural resources; the creation of borders and national identities; race, class, and gender relations; the influence of immigration and emigration; violence and criminality; cities and suburbs; and the enduring persistence of Western myths in American culture. Students write several papers and engage in weekly discussion based upon primary and secondary documents, art, literature, and film. (Same as History 2160 {232}.)

2444 {244} c - VPA. City, Anti-City, Utopia: Building Urban America. Spring 2015. Jill Pearlman.

Explores the evolution of the American city from the beginning of industrialization to the present age of mass communications. Focuses on the underlying explanations for the American city’s physical form by examining cultural values, technological advancement, aesthetic theories, and social structure. Major figures, places, and schemes in the areas of urban design and architecture, social criticism, and reform are considered. (Same as History 2006 {244}.)

2445 {245} c - VPA. The Nature of Frank Lloyd Wright. Fall 2014. Jill Pearlman.

An in-depth investigation of the buildings of North America’s most celebrated architect, with emphasis on the major theme of his work—the complex relationship between architecture and nature. Examines Wright’s key projects for a diverse range of environments and regions while also placing the master builder and his works into a larger historical, cultural, and architectural context. Engages in a critical analysis of the rich historical literature that Wright has evoked in recent decades, along with the prolific writings of the architect himself. Note: This course counts toward the art history requirement for the visual arts major and minor.

2447 {247} c. Maine: A Community and Environmental History. Spring 2014. Sarah McMahon.

Seminar. Examines the evolution of various Maine social and ecological communities—inland, hill country, and coastal. Begins with the contact of European and Native American cultures, examines the transfer of English and European agricultural traditions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and explores the development of diverse geographic, economic, ethnic, and cultural communities during the nineteenth and into the early twentieth centuries. (Same as History 2607 {247}.)

Prerequisite: One course in history or permission of the instructor.

2448 {258} c. Environmental Ethics. Spring 2015. Lawrence H. Simon.

What things in nature have moral standing? What are our obligations to them? How should we resolve conflicts among our obligations? After an introduction to ethical theory, topics include anthropocentrism, the moral status of nonhuman sentient beings and of non-sentient living beings, preservation of endangered species and the wilderness, holism versus individualism, the land ethic, and deep ecology. (Same as Philosophy 2358 {258}.)

2465 {265} c. Place-Based Education. Fall 2013. Casey Meehan.

One critique of K-12 schooling is that it separates the learning happening within the school walls from the places people inhabit. Explores the prospects and challenges of connecting the natural environment and community surroundings with formal K-12 educational settings, and investigates the historical and theoretical underpinnings of environmental education, place-based education, outdoor education, and sustainability education. Special attention given to the pedagogical dilemmas and opportunities these forms of education pose for teachers preparing students to live in a democratic society. (Same as Education 2265 {265}.)

Prerequisite: Education 1101 {101}.

[2473 {273} c. Drawing on Science. (Same as Visual Arts 2202 {271}.)]

[2480 {248} c - IP. Italians at Sea: Exploration, Love, and Disaster from the Mediterranean to the Seven Seas. (Same as Italian 2525 {225}.)]

2485 {285} c. Ecological Thought in Latin American Literature. Fall 2013. Enrique Yepes.

Explores how the radical interconnectedness postulated by ecological thinking can be read in Latin American narrative, essay, film, and poetry from the 1920s to the present. Includes a review of cultural ecology as well as an overview of environmental history and activism in the region. (Same as Latin American Studies 3245 {345} and Spanish 3245 {345}.)

Prerequisite: Two of the following: Spanish 2409 {209} (same as Latin American Studies 2409 {209}), 2410 {210} (same as Latin American Studies 2410 {210}), 3200 {310} or higher; or permission of the instructor.

2970–2973 {291–294}. Intermediate Independent Study in Environmental Studies.
The Program.

2999 {299}. Intermediate Collaborative Study in Environmental Studies. The Program.

3902 {302} a. Earth Climate History. Every spring. Spring 2014. Philip Camill.

The modern world is experiencing rapid climate warming and some parts extreme drought, which will have dramatic impacts on ecosystems and human societies. How do contemporary warming and aridity compare to past changes in climate over the last billion years? Are modern changes human-caused or part of the natural variability in the climate system? What effects did past changes have on global ecosystems and human societies? Students use environmental records from rocks, soils, ocean cores, ice cores, lake cores, fossil plants, and tree rings to assemble proxies of past changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and disturbance to examine several issues: long-term carbon cycling and climate, major extinction events, the rise of C4 photosynthesis and the evolution of grazing mammals, orbital forcing and glacial cycles, glacial refugia and post-glacial species migrations, climate change and the rise and collapse of human civilizations, climate/overkill hypothesis of Pleistocene megafauna, climate variability, drought cycles, climate change impacts on disturbances (fire and hurricanes), and determining natural variability vs. human-caused climate change. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 3020 {302}.)

Prerequisite: Earth and Oceanographic Science 2005 {200} (same as Environmental Studies 2221 {200}), or permission of the instructor.

3903 {304} a. Advanced Environmental Chemistry. Fall 2013. David R. Griffith.

Every year, 300 million tons of synthetic organic chemicals enter natural waters. Examines the fate of organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Uses chemical structures and properties to predict contaminant partitioning, biodegradation, and transport, and to evaluate the implications for human health and aquatic ecosystems. Case studies on endocrine disrupting chemicals, oil spills, and pharmaceuticals allow critical examination of inherent tensions between compound-specific chemical analyses and toxicity bioassays, between studies of single-compounds and complex mixtures, and between empirical and predictive approaches. (Same as Chemistry 3040 {304}.)

Prerequisite: Chemistry 2250 {225}.

[3905 {305} a. Environmental Fate of Organic Chemicals. (Same as Chemistry 3050 {305}.)]

[3906 {306} a. Transformation of Organic Chemicals in the Environment. (Same as Chemistry 3060 {306}.)]

3918 {318} b. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. Fall 2014. Guillermo Herrera.

Seminar. Analysis of externalities and market failure; models of optimum control of pollution and efficient management of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources such as fisheries, forests, and minerals; governmental vs. other forms of control of common-pool resources; and benefit-cost analysis of policies, including market-based and non-market valuation. Permission of instructor required during add/drop for students who have credit for Economics 2218 {218} (same as Environmental Studies 2302 {218}) or 2228 {228} (same as Environmental Studies 2303 {228}). (Same as Economics 3518 {318}.)

Prerequisite: Economics 2555 {255} and 2557 {257}.

[3920 {320} b. Animal Planet: Humans and Other Animals. (Same as Anthropology 3210 {321}.)]

[3921 {321} b. The Economics of Land Use, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity. (Same as Economics 3521 {321}.)]

3957 {357} a. The Physics of Climate. Every other spring. Spring 2015. Mark Battle.

A rigorous treatment of the earth’s climate, based on physical principles. Topics include climate feedbacks, sensitivity to perturbations, and the connections between climate and radiative transfer, atmospheric composition, and large-scale circulation of the oceans and atmospheres. Anthropogenic climate change also studied. (Same as Earth and Oceanographic Science 3050 {357} and Physics 3810 {357}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Physics 2150 {229}, 2810 {257}, or 3000 {300}, or permission of the instructor.

[3963 {363} b. Advanced Seminar in International Relations: Law, Politics, and the Search for Justice. (Same as Government 3610 {363}.)]

3975 {375}. Feeding the World: The Nature and Challenges of Our Food and Agricultural Systems. Spring 2014. Philip Camill.

Although we live in a world where global food abundance is at record highs, and prices are at historic lows, our modern food system has its share of challenges. Methods of food production, marketing, distribution, and consumption have spawned waves of criticism, including concerns about farm economics, food justice, worker safety, animal welfare, famine, ecological degradation, climate change, biotechnology, and public health. In the wake of these challenges, alternative systems of food production, distribution, and consumption are beginning to emerge. An interdisciplinary exploration of three questions: How do we produce and eat food? What major social and environmental consequences have arisen from food production and consumption? What should we produce and eat? Examines the historical origins of agriculture, social and environmental problems arising from these transitions, and social movements oriented toward making our food system more ecologically sustainable and socially just. Current or prior enrollment in Environmental Studies 2201 {201}, 2330 {202}, and 2403 {203} is recommended.

Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 1101 {101} or permission of the instructor.

3980 {337} c. Nature and Health in America. Spring 2015. Matthew Klingle.

Explores relationships between humans, environment, and health in North American history from the sixteenth century to the present day. Topics may include the evolution of public health, biomedical research, and clinical practice; folk remedies and popular understandings of health; infectious and chronic diseases; links between landscape, health, and inequality; gender and reproductive health; occupational health and safety; the effects of agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization on human and ecological health; state and federal policies; and the colonial and global dimensions of public health and medicine. Students write a major research paper based on primary sources. Environmental Studies 1101 {101}, 2403 {203}, and at least one history course numbered 2000–2969 {200–289} recommended. (Same as History 3180 {337}.)

3991 {391}. Troubled Waters: Fishing in the Gulf of Maine. Spring 2015. The Program.

Around the world and in the Gulf of Maine, overfishing, threats to habitat, and climate change are putting marine ecosystems and coastal communities under great stress. An interdisciplinary senior seminar draws on oceanography, ecology, history, economics, anthropology, and political science to explore the causes and scope of pressures on the marine environment; the potential for restoring ecosystems, fisheries, and coastal economies; political conflicts over fisheries and related issues; federal, state, and community-based approaches to managing marine ecosystems; and strategies for coping with scientific and management uncertainties.

3992 {392} c. Advanced Topics in Environmental Philosophy. Spring 2014. Lawrence H. Simon.

Examines philosophical, moral, political, and policy questions regarding various environmental issues. Possible topics include the ethics of climate change policy, our obligations to future generations, benefit-cost analysis vs. the precautionary principle as a decision-making instrument, and the relationship between justice and sustainability. (Same as Philosophy 3392 {392}.)

3994 {394} a. Ecological Recovery of Maine’s Coastal Ecosystems. Fall 2014. John Lichter.

Maine’s coastal ecosystems once supported prodigious abundances of wildlife that supported human communities for millennia before succumbing to multiple anthropogenic stresses in the mid-twentieth century. Today, we need to understand the most pressing ecological and social constraints limiting recovery of these once vital ecosystems to achieve sustainable ecological recovery and provision of ecosystem services. Objective is to better understand the biophysical and social constraints limiting ecological recovery, and to rethink the failed management policies of the past. Students participate in a thorough review of the relevant scientific and historical literature and conduct a group study investigating some aspect of the ecology and/or the environmental history of Maine’s coastal ecosystems. (Same as Biology 3394 {394}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325 {225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}); or Environmental Studies 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}).

[3998 {398} c. The City since 1960.]

4000–4003 {401–404}. Advanced Independent Study in Environmental Studies. The Program.

4029 {405}. Advanced Collaborative Study in Environmental Studies. The Program.

4050–4051. Honors Project in Environmental Studies. The Program.

The following courses count toward the requirements of the Interdisciplinary Science Concentration, in addition to ES courses designated with an “a”:

Chemistry 2100 {210} a - MCSR, INS. Chemical Analysis. Every fall. Elizabeth Stemmler.

Chemistry 2400 {240} a - MCSR, INS. Inorganic Chemistry. Every spring. Jeffrey K. Nagle.

Students may also choose from the following list of courses to satisfy requirements for the major in environmental studies. These courses will receive environmental studies credit with the approval of the director after consultation with the student and the instructor. It is expected that a substantial portion of the student’s research efforts will focus on the environment. In addition to the courses listed below, students may discuss other possibilities with the Environmental Studies Program. For full course descriptions and prerequisites, see the appropriate department listings.

Social Sciences

Anthropology 1150 {102} b. Introduction to World Prehistory. Fall 2013. Scott MacEachern.

Natural Sciences

Mathematics 2108 {208} a - MCSR. Biomathematics. Fall 2014. Mary Lou Zeeman. (Same as Biology 1174 {174}.)

Mathematics 3108 {304 or 318} a. Advanced Topics in Modeling. Fall 2015. Mary Lou Zeeman.

Online Catalogue content is current as of August 1, 2013. For most current course information, use the online course finder. Also see Addenda.