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The College Catalogue

Biology – Courses

First-Year Seminars

For a full description of first-year seminars, see the First-Year Seminar section.

1023 {23} a. Personal Genomes. Fall 2014. Jack Bateman.

1026 {26} a. Adventures in Neuroscience: Aphasias, Auras, and Axons. Fall 2015. Hadley Horch.

Biology 1027 {27} a. Evolutionary Links. Spring 2016. William Jackman.

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses

1056 {56} a - INS. Ecology and Society. Spring 2016.Vladimir Douhovnikoff.

Presents an overview of ecology covering basic ecological principles and the relationship between human activity and the ecosystems that support us. Examines how ecological processes, both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living), influence the life history of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Encourages student investigation of environmental interactions and how human-influenced disturbance is shaping the environment. Required field trips illustrate the use of ecological concepts as tools for interpreting local natural history. (Same as Environmental Studies 1056 {56}.)

1059 {59} a - INS. Plants and Symbiosis. Spring 2015. Samuel H. Taylor.

Interdependence between organisms is a ubiquitous feature in biology with important consequences for how we think about the world. Plant biology is used as a starting point to explore a variety of inter-species, particularly symbiotic, interactions observed in nature. Theories of the origin, maintenance, and persistence of symbioses are discussed. Biological examples include ancient intracellular symbioses underlying photosynthesis and respiration, as well as interactions between plants, pathogens, parasites, and symbionts, including nitrogen fixers and nutrient scavengers important to human food supply. An experimental research project in plant biology demonstrates the scientific process.

[1090 {90} a - INS. Understanding Climate Change. (Same as Environmental Studies 1090 {90}.)]

1101 {101} a - MCSR, INS. Biological Principles I. Fall 2014. Anne E. McBride.

The first in a two-semester introductory biology sequence. Topics include fundamental principles of cellular and molecular biology with an emphasis on providing a problem-solving approach to an understanding of genes, RNA, proteins, and cell structure and communication. Focuses on developing quantitative skills as well as critical thinking and problem solving skills. Lecture and weekly laboratory/discussion groups. To ensure proper placement, students must take the biology placement examination and must be recommended for placement in Biology 1101. Students continuing in biology will take Biology 1102 {102}, not Biology 1109 {109}, as their next biology course.

Prerequisite: Placement in Biology 1101.

1102 {102} a - MCSR, INS. Biological Principles II. Spring 2015. Amy Johnson.

The second in a two-semester introductory biology sequence. Emphasizes fundamental biological principles extending from the physiological to the ecosystem level of living organisms. Topics include physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology, with a focus on developing quantitative skills as well as critical thinking and problem solving skills. Lecture and weekly laboratory/discussion groups.

Prerequisite: Biology 1101 {101}.

1109 {109} a - MCSR, INS. Scientific Reasoning in Biology. Every semester. Fall 2014. Patsy Dickinson and Vladimir Douhovnikoff. Spring 2015. Bruce Kohorn and William R. Jackman.

Lectures examine fundamental biological principles, from the sub-cellular to the ecosystem level with an emphasis on critical thinking and the scientific method. Laboratory sessions will help develop a deeper understanding of the techniques and methods used in the biological sciences by requiring students to design and conduct their own experiments. Lecture and weekly laboratory/discussion groups. To ensure proper placement, students must take the biology placement examination and must be recommended for placement in Biology 1109.

Prerequisite: Placement in Biology 1109.

1158 {158} a - MCSR, INS. Perspectives in Environmental Science. Every spring. Phil Camill and Dharni Vasudevan.

Functioning of the earth system is defined by the complex and fascinating interaction of processes within and between four principal spheres: land, air, water, and life. Leverages key principles of environmental chemistry and ecology to unravel the intricate connectedness of natural phenomena and ecosystem function. Fundamental biological and chemical concepts are used to understand the science behind the environmental dilemmas facing societies as a consequence of human activities. Laboratory sessions consist of local field trips, laboratory experiments, group research, case study exercises, and discussions of current and classic scientific literature. (Same as Chemistry 1105 {105} and Environmental Studies 2201 {201}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 1100 {100} or higher in biology, chemistry, earth and oceanographic science, or physics.

1174 {174} a - MCSR. Biomathematics. Fall 2014. Mary Lou Zeeman.

A study of mathematical modeling in biology, with a focus on translating back and forth between biological questions and their mathematical representation. Biological questions are drawn from a broad range of topics, including disease, ecology, genetics, population dynamics, and neurobiology. Mathematical methods include discrete and continuous (ODE) models and simulation, box models, linearization, stability analysis, attractors, oscillations, limiting behavior, feedback, and multiple time-scales. Three hours of class meetings and 1.5 hours of computer laboratory sessions per week. Within the biology major, this course may count as the mathematics credit or as biology credit, but not both. Students are expected to have taken a year of high school or college biology prior to this course. (Same as Mathematics 2108 {204}.)

Prerequisite: Mathematics 1600 {161}, or permission of the instructor.

2112 {212} a - MCSR, INS. Genetics and Molecular Biology. Every spring. Jack R. Bateman.

Integrated coverage of organismic and molecular levels of genetic systems. Topics include modes of inheritance, the structure and function of chromosomes, the mechanisms and control of gene expression, recombination, mutagenesis, techniques of molecular biology, and human genetic variation. Laboratory sessions are scheduled.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2118 {218} a - INS. Microbiology. Every spring. Anne E. McBride.

An examination of the structure and function of microorganisms, from viruses to bacteria to fungi, with an emphasis on molecular descriptions. Subjects covered include microbial structure, metabolism, and genetics. Control of microorganisms and environmental interactions are also discussed. Laboratory sessions every week. Chemistry 2250 {225} is recommended.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2124 {224} a - MCSR, INS. Biochemistry and Cell Biology. Every fall. Bruce D. Kohorn.

Focuses on the structure and function of cells as we have come to know them through the interpretation of direct observations and experimental results. Emphasis is on the scientific (thought) processes that have allowed us to understand what we know today, emphasizing the use of genetic, biochemical, and optical analysis to understand fundamental biological processes. Covers details of the organization and expression of genetic information and the biosynthesis, sorting, and function of cellular components within the cell. Concludes with examples of how cells perceive signals from other cells within cell populations, tissues, organisms, and the environment. Three hours of lab each week. This course satisfies a requirement for the biochemistry major; it is not open to students who have credit for Biology 2423 {223}.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2135 {213} a - MCSR, INS. Neurobiology. Every fall. Hadley Wilson Horch.

Examines fundamental concepts in neurobiology from the molecular to the systems level. Topics include neuronal communication, gene regulation, morphology, neuronal development, axon guidance, mechanisms of neuronal plasticity, sensory systems, and the molecular basis of behavior and disease. Weekly lab sessions introduce a wide range of methods used to examine neurons and neuronal systems.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2175 {217} a - MCSR, INS. Developmental Biology. Every fall. William R. Jackman.

An examination of current concepts of embryonic development, with an emphasis on experimental design. Topics include cell fate specification, morphogenetic movements, cell signaling, differential gene expression and regulation, organogenesis, and the evolutionary context of model systems. Project-oriented laboratory work emphasizes experimental methods. Lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2210 {210} a - MCSR, INS. Plant Physiology. Fall 2014. Samuel H. Taylor.

An introduction to the physiological processes that enable plants to grow under the varied conditions found in nature. General topics discussed include the acquisition, transport, and use of water and mineral nutrients; photosynthetic carbon assimilation; and the influence of environmental and hormonal signals on development and morphology. Adaptation and acclimation to extreme environments and other ecophysiological subjects are also discussed. Weekly laboratories reinforce principles discussed in lecture and expose students to modern research techniques. (Same as Environmental Studies 2223 {210}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2214 {214} a - MCSR, INS. Comparative Physiology. Every spring. Patsy S. Dickinson.

An examination of animal function, from the cellular to the organismal level. The underlying concepts are emphasized, as are the experimental data that support our current understanding of animal function. Topics include the nervous system, hormones, respiration, circulation, osmoregulation, digestion, and thermoregulation. Labs are short, student-designed projects involving a variety of instrumentation. Lectures and four hours of laboratory work per week.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2315 {215} a - MCSR, INS. Behavioral Ecology and Population Biology. Every fall. Nathaniel T. Wheelwright.

Study of the behavior of animals and plants and the interactions between organisms and their environment. Topics include population growth and structure and the influence of competition, predation, and other factors on the behavior, abundance, and distribution of plants and animals. Laboratory sessions, field trips, and research projects emphasize concepts in ecology, evolution and behavior, research techniques, and the natural history of local plants and animals. Optional weekend field trip to Monhegan Island or the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent Island. (Same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2316 {216} a - MCSR, INS. Evolution. Every spring. Michael F. Palopoli.

Examines one of the most breathtaking ideas in the history of science—that all life on this planet descended from a common ancestor. An understanding of evolution illuminates every subject in biology, from molecular biology to ecology. Provides a broad overview of evolutionary ideas, including the modern theory of evolution by natural selection, evolution of sexual reproduction, patterns of speciation and macro-evolutionary change, evolution of sexual dimorphisms, selfish genetic elements, and kin selection. Laboratory sessions are devoted to semester-long, independent research projects.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.

2319 {219} a - MCSR, INS. Biology of Marine Organisms. Every fall. Amy Johnson.

The study of the biology and ecology of marine mammals, seabirds, fish, intertidal and subtidal invertebrates, algae, and plankton. Also considers the biogeographic consequences of global and local ocean currents on the evolution and ecology of marine organisms. Laboratories, field trips, and research projects emphasize natural history, functional morphology, and ecology. Lectures and four hours of laboratory or field trip per week. One weekend field trip included. (Same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.



2325 {225} a - MCSR, INS. Biodiversity and Conservation Science.
Fall 2015. John Lichter.

People rely on nature for food, materials, medicines, and recreation; yet the fate of Earth’s biodiversity is rarely given priority among the many pressing problems facing humanity today. Explores the interactions within and among populations of plants, animals, and microorganisms and the mechanisms by which those interactions are regulated by the physical and chemical environment. Major themes are biodiversity and the processes that maintain biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function, and the science underlying conservation efforts. Laboratory sessions consist of student research, local field trips, laboratory exercises, and discussions of current and classic ecological literature. (Same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or Environmental Studies 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}).

2330 a – MCSR. Marine Molecular Ecology and Evolution. Fall 2014. Sarah Kingston.

Features the application of molecular data to ecological and evolutionary problems in the sea. Hands-on laboratory work introduces students to sampling, generation, and analysis of molecular data sets with Sanger-based technology and Next Generation Sequencing. Lectures, discussions, and computer-based simulations demonstrate the relevant theoretical principles of population genetics and phylogenetics. A class project begins a long-term sampling program using DNA barcoding to understand temporal and spatial change in the ocean. Taught at the Bowdoin Marine Laboratory. (Same as Environmental Studies 2233.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}, and a course in mathematics; or permission of the instructor.

2423 {223} a. Biochemistry of Cellular Processes. Spring 2016. Bruce Kohorn.

This course does NOT satisfy a requirement for the biochemistry major and is not open to students who have credit for Biology 2124 {224}. Students who intend to enroll in Biology 2124 {224} should not register for Biology 2423 {223}. Explores the biochemical mechanisms that underlie the basis of life. Starts with the chemistry of proteins, DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates to build the main elements of a cell. Moves on to the process of gene organization and expression, emphasizing the biochemical mechanisms that regulate these events. Explores next the organization of the cell, with emphasis on genetic and biochemical regulation. Finishes with specific examples of multicellular interactions, including development, cancer, and perception of the environment.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or 2210 {210} or higher; and Chemistry 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}.

2551 a - MCSR, INS. Molecular Ecology. Spring 2015. David Carlon.

Develops the theory and practical skills to apply genetic data to ecological questions. Topics include population connectivity and dispersal, mating systems, detecting natural selection in the wild, and the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. Lectures and discussions develop theoretical understanding through worked examples. The laboratory provides hands-on experience in generating genetic data from marine populations, including modules on sampling design, DNA/RNA extraction, Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing technology, and data analysis through modeling. (Same as Environmental Studies 2268.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or placement in biology at the 2000 level.


2553 {253} a. Neurophysiology.
Every fall. Patsy S. Dickinson.

A comparative study of the function of the nervous system in invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Topics include the mechanisms that underlie both action potentials and patterns of spontaneous activity in individual nerve cells, interactions between neurons, and the organization of neurons into larger functional units. Lectures and four hours of laboratory work per week.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109} and Biology 2135 {213} or 2214 {214}, or Psychology 2050 {218}.

2554 {254} a - MCSR, INS. Biomechanics. Every spring. Amy S. Johnson.

Examines the quantitative and qualitative characterization of organismal morphology and explores the relationship of morphology to measurable components of an organism’s mechanical, hydrodynamic, and ecological environment. Lectures, problem sets, and individual research projects emphasize (1) the analysis of morphology, including analyses of the shape of individual organisms, different modes of locomotion and the mechanical and molecular organization of the tissues; (2) characterization of water flow associated with organisms; and (3) analyses of the ecological and mechanical consequences to organisms of their interaction with their environment. Introductory physics and calculus are strongly recommended.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102}, 1109 {109}, or 2210 {210} or higher; or one course numbered 1100–3999 {100–399} in chemistry, earth and oceanographic science, mathematics, or physics.

2557 {257} a. Immunology. Fall 2015. Anne E. McBride.

Covers the development of the immune response, the cell biology of the immune system, the nature of antigens, antibodies, B and T cells, and the complement system. The nature of natural immunity, transplantation immunology, and tumor immunology also considered.

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2112 {212}, 2118 {218}, 2124 {224}, or 2175 {217}; or permission of the instructor.

2558 {258} a. Ornithology. Spring 2015. Nathaniel T. Wheelwright.

Advanced study of the biology of birds, including anatomy, physiology, distribution, and systematics, with an emphasis on avian ecology and evolution. Through integrated laboratory sessions, field trips, and discussion of the primary literature, students learn identification of birds, functional morphology, and research techniques such as experimental design, behavioral observation, and field methods. Optional weekend field trip to Monhegan Island or the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent Island.

Prerequisite: Biology 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}) or 2325 {225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}).

2566 {266} a. Molecular Neurobiology. Every spring. Hadley Wilson Horch.

Examination of the molecular control of neuronal structure and function. Topics include the molecular basis of neuronal excitability, the factors involved in chemical and contact-mediated neuronal communication, and the complex molecular control of developing and regenerating nervous systems. Weekly laboratories complement lectures by covering a range of molecular and cellular techniques used in neurobiology and culminate in brief independent projects.

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102} or 1109 {109} and one of the following: Biology 2112 {212}, 2124 {224}, 2135 {213}, 2553 {253}, or Psychology 2050 {218}.

2571 {271} a. Biology of Marine Mammals. Fall 2014. Damon P. Gannon.

Examines the biology of cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters. Topics include diversity, evolution, morphology, physiology, ecology, behavior, and conservation. Detailed consideration given to the adaptations that allow these mammals to live in the sea. Includes lecture, discussion of primary literature, lab, field trips, and student-selected case studies. Laboratory and field exercises consider anatomy, biogeography, social organization, foraging ecology, population dynamics, bioacoustics, and management of the marine mammal species found in the Gulf of Maine. (Same as Environmental Studies 2271 {271}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1154 {154} (same as Environmental Studies 1154 {154}), 1158 {158} (same as Chemistry 1105 {105} and Environmental Studies 2201 {201}), 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2316 {216}, 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325 {225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}).

2574 {274} a - MCSR, INS. Marine Conservation Biology. Fall 2015. Damon P. Gannon.

Introduces key biological concepts that are essential for understanding conservation issues. Explores biodiversity in the world’s major marine ecosystems; the mechanisms of biodiversity loss at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels; and the properties of marine systems that pose unique conservation challenges. Investigates the theory and practice of marine biodiversity conservation, focusing on the interactions among ecology, economics, and public policy. Consists of lecture/discussion, lab, field trips, guest seminars by professionals working in the field, and student-selected case studies. (Same as Environmental Studies 2274 {274}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 1154 {154} (same as Environmental Studies 1154 {154}), 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325 {225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}); Environmental Studies 1101 {101} or 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}); or permission of the instructor.

[2580 {280} a. Plant Responses to the Environment. (Same as Environmental Studies 2280 {280}.)]

2581 {281} a. Forest Ecology and Conservation. Fall 2014. Vladimir Douhovnikoff.

An examination of how forest ecology and the principles of silviculture inform forest ecosystem restoration and conservation. Explores ecological dynamics of forest ecosystems, the science of managing forests for tree growth and other goals, natural history and historic use of forest resources, and the state of forests today, as well as challenges and opportunities in forest restoration and conservation. Consists of lecture, discussions, field trips, and guest seminars by professionals working in the field. (Same as Environmental Studies 2281 {281}.)

2970–2973 {291–294} a. Intermediate Independent Study in Biology. The Department.

2999 {299} a. Intermediate Collaborative Study in Biology. The Department.

3301 a. Dimensions of Marine Biodiversity. Fall 2014. David Carlon.

Focused laboratory and fieldwork that integrates across the genetic, systematic, and functional aspects of marine biodiversity to understand the ecological and evolutionary significance of biodiversity. Illustrates this approach by featuring three to four different evolutionary clades that are the foundations of different marine communities (e.g. coastal zooplankton, rocky intertidal, soft-bottom benthos, tropical coral reefs, and marine mammals). Taught at the Bowdoin Marine Laboratory. (Same as Environmental Studies 2234.)

Prerequisite: Biology 1102 {102} or 1109 {109}, and a course in mathematics; or permission of the instructor.

3304 {304} a. The RNA World. Fall 2014. Anne E. McBride.

Seminar exploring the numerous roles of ribonucleic acid, from the discovery of RNA as a cellular messenger to the development of RNAs to treat disease. Topics also include RNA enzymes, interactions of RNA viruses with host cells, RNA tools in biotechnology, and RNA as a potential origin of life. Focuses on discussions of papers from the primary literature.

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2112 {212}, 2118 {218}, 2124 {224}; or Chemistry 2320 {232}; or permission of the instructor.

3307 {307} a. Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Every spring. William R. Jackman.

Advanced seminar investigating the synergistic but complex interface between the fields of developmental and evolutionary biology. Topics include the evolution of novel structures, developmental constraints to evolution, evolution of developmental gene regulation, and the generation of variation. Readings and discussions from the primary scientific literature.

Prerequisite: Biology 2175 {217} or 2316 {216}, or permission of the instructor.

3314 {314} a. Advanced Genetics and Epigenetics. Every fall. Jack R. Bateman.

A seminar exploring the complex relationship between genotype and phenotype, with an emphasis on emerging studies of lesser-known mechanisms of inheritance and gene regulation. Topics include dosage compensation, parental imprinting, paramutation, random monoallelic expression, gene regulation by small RNAs, DNA elimination, copy number polymorphism, and prions. Reading and discussion of articles from the primary literature.

Prerequisite: Biology 2112 {212}.

3317 {317} a. Molecular Evolution. Fall 2015. Michael F. Palopoli.

Examines the dynamics of evolutionary change at the molecular level. Topics include neutral theory of molecular evolution, rates and patterns of change in nucleotide sequences and proteins, molecular phylogenetics, and genome evolution. Students read and discuss papers from the scientific literature, and complete independent projects in the laboratory.

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2112 {212}, 2118 {218}, 2124 {224}, 2175 {217}, or 2316 {216}; or permission of the instructor.

3325 {325} a. Topics in Neuroscience. Fall 2015. Patsy S. Dickinson.

An advanced seminar focusing on one or more aspects of neuroscience, such as neurotoxins, modulation of neuronal activity, or the neural basis of behavior. Students read and discuss original papers from the literature.

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2135 {213}, 2553 {253}, or 2566 {266}; or Psychology 2750 {275} or 2751 {276}; or permission of the instructor.

3329 {329} a. Neuronal Regeneration. Fall 2014. Hadley Wilson Horch.

The consequences of neuronal damage in humans, especially in the brain and spinal cord, are frequently devastating and permanent. Invertebrates, on the other hand, are often capable of complete functional regeneration. Examines the varied responses to neuronal injury in a range of species. Topics include neuronal regeneration in planaria, insects, amphibians, and mammals. Students read and discuss original papers from the literature in an attempt to understand the basis of the radically different regenerative responses mounted by a variety of neuronal systems.

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2112 {212}, 2124 {224}, 2135 {213}, 2175 {217}, 2553 {253}, 2566 {266}; or Psychology 2750 {275} or 2751 {276}; or permission of the instructor.

3333 {333} a. Advanced Cell and Molecular Biology. Every spring. Bruce D. Kohorn.

An exploration of the multiple ways cells have evolved to transmit signals from their external environment to cause alterations in cell architecture, physiology, and gene expression. Examples are drawn from both single-cell and multi-cellular organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, land plants, insects, worms, and mammals. Emphasis is on the primary literature, with directed discussion and some background introductory remarks for each class.

Prerequisite: Biology 2124 {224} or permission of the instructor.

3381 {381} a. Ecological Genetics. Spring 2017. Vladimir Douhovnikoff.

Covers the principles of population and quantitative genetics from an ecological perspective. Focuses on key concepts in the evolution of natural and managed populations, including subjects such as the heritability of ecologically important traits, inbreeding effects, and random genetic drift. Discusses various field and lab methods using genetic information in the study of ecology.

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2315 {215}, 2319 {219}, 2325 {225}, 2571 {271}, 2580 {280}, or 2581 {281}.

Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 2315 {215} (same as Environmental Studies 2224 {215}), 2319 {219} (same as Environmental Studies 2229 {219}), or 2325 {225} (same as Environmental Studies 2225 {225}); or Environmental Studies 2201 {201} (same as Biology 1158 {158} and Chemistry 1105 {105}).

4000–4003 {401–404} a. Advanced Independent Study in Biology. The Department.

4029 {405} a. Advanced Collaborative Study in Biology. The Department.

4050–4051 a. Honors Project in Biology. The Department.


Online Catalogue content is current as of August 1, 2014. For most current course information, use the online course finder. Also see Addenda.