Location: Bowdoin / The College Catalogue / Courses / Africana Studies / Courses

The College Catalogue

Africana Studies – Courses

First-Year Seminars

For a full description of first-year seminars, see the First-Year Seminar section.

1010 {10} b. Racism. Fall 2014. Roy Partridge. (Same as Sociology 1010 {10}.)

1012 {12} c. Affirmative Action and United States Society. Fall 2015. Brian Purnell.

1015 c. Women and the Blues. Fall 2014. Susan M. Taffe Reed. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 1030 and Music 1015.)

1019 c. Holy Songs in a Strange Land. Spring 2015. Judith Casselberry. (Same as Music 1011.)

1026 {16} c. Fictions of Freedom. Fall 2014. Tess Chakkalakal. (Same as English 1026 {26}.)

[1040 {13} c. From Montezuma to Bin Laden: Globalization and Its Critics. (Same as History 1040 {16}.)]

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses

1101 {101} c - ESD. Introduction to Africana Studies. Every fall. Fall 2014. Judith Casselberry.

Focuses on major humanities and social science disciplinary and interdisciplinary African American and African diaspora themes in the context of the modern world. The African American experience discussed in its appropriate historical context, emphasizing its important place in the history of the United States and connections to African diasporic experiences, especially in the construction of the Atlantic world. Material covered chronologically and thematically, building on historically centered accounts of African American, African diaspora, and African experiences. Introduces prospective Africana studies majors and minors to the intellectually engaging field of Africana studies; provides an overview of the major theoretical and methodological perspectives in this evolving field; and provides historical context for critical analyses of African American experiences in the United States, and their engagement with the African diaspora.

1103 {103} c - ESD, VPA. African American Diasporic Dance: From the Ring Shout to Hip-Hop. Spring 2014. Nyama McCarthy-Brown.

Combines dance history, embodied research, and performance. Students engage in readings, class discussions, and movement studies that allow them to learn movement techniques from past eras. Students explore connections between cultural values and norms and movement aesthetics, and discover how African American vernacular dance and jazz music influenced jazz forms and American dance throughout the twentieth century (ragtime, swing, hot jazz, and hip-hop). Culminates with a performance in the December Dance Concert. Students meet once a week in a seminar setting to investigate one dance era, such as swing. The next two class meetings take place in a dance studio in order to embody the dance form discussed that week, and include rehearsals. (Same as Dance 1103 {103}.)

1241 {139} c. The Civil War Era. Fall 2014. Patrick Rael.

Examines the coming of the Civil War and the war itself in all its aspects. Considers the impact of changes in American society, the sectional crisis and breakdown of the party system, the practice of Civil War warfare, and social ramifications of the conflict. Includes readings of novels and viewing of films. Students are expected to enter with a basic knowledge of American history and a commitment to participating in large class discussions. (Same as History 1241 {139}.

1460 {160} c - ESD, IP. Apartheid’s Voices: South African History, 1948 to 1994. Fall 2015. David M. Gordon.

The study of apartheid in South Africa, the system of racial and ethnic segregation that began in 1948 and ended with the first democratic election of Nelson Mandela in 1994. Explores the many different aspects of apartheid: how and why it emerged; its social and economic impacts; its relationship to other forms of segregation and racial-based governance; and how people lived under, resisted, and collaborated with apartheid. Readings, lectures, and class discussions focus on personal South African voices and explore their diverse gendered, ethnic, and racial perspectives. (Same as History 1460 {160}.)

1581 {121} c - VPA. History of Jazz I. Spring 2017. Tracy McMullen.

A socio-cultural, historical, and analytical introduction to jazz music from the turn of the twentieth century to around 1950. Includes some concert attendance. (Same as Music 1281 {121}.)

1592 {159} c - ESD, VPA. History of Hip-Hop. Spring 2015. Tracy McMullen.

Traces the history of hip-hop culture (with a focus on rap music) from its beginnings in the Caribbean through its transformation into a global phenomenon. Explores constructions of race, gender, class, and sexuality in hip-hop’s production, promotion, and consumption, as well as the ways in which changing media technology and corporate consolidation influenced the music. Artists/bands investigated will include Grandmaster Flash, Public Enemy, MC Lyte, Lil’ Kim, Snoop Dog, Eminem, Nicki Minaj, and DJ Spooky. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 1592 {140} and Music 1292 {140}.)

2051 b - ESD. Race, Citizenship, and Political Behavior. Fall 2014. Cory Charles Gooding.

Analyzes the ability of race and ethnicity to restrict access to citizenship rights and produce dynamic forms of political behavior that range from micro- to macro-politics. The course considers the traditional forms of political behavior (e.g., voting) as well as those that function outside of the traditional institutions of governmental influence. Specific forms of political behavior discussed include “foot-dragging” (failure to act with the necessary promptness), sports, music, protests, and voting. (Same as Government 2051.)

2052 b - ESD. Race, Ethnicity, and Politics. Spring 2015. Cory Charles Gooding.

Examines the impact of race and ethnicity on American politics. Students study differences in political behavior (e.g., levels of activism and group consciousness) and political outcomes (e.g., in education and criminal justice) across racial and ethnic groups, including Native Americans, Black Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and White Americans. The focus on group identities is a major feature. How do racial and ethnic group identities form, and how are they sustained? Discusses this in both the historical and contemporary sense. These questions inform discussions about the impact of group identities on political outcomes. Is a strong racial or ethnic identification a key driver of political behavior? Why and to what effect? (Same as Government 2052.)

2140 {236} c - ESD. The History of African Americans, 1619–1865. Spring 2015.
Patrick Rael.

Examines the history of African Americans from the origins of slavery in America through the death of slavery during the Civil War. Explores a wide range of topics, including the establishment of slavery in colonial America, the emergence of plantation society, control and resistance on the plantation, the culture and family structure of enslaved African Americans, free black communities, and the coming of the Civil War and the death of slavery. (Same as History 2140 {236}.)

2141 {237} c - ESD. The History of African Americans from 1865 to the Present. Spring 2016. Patrick Rael.

Explores the history of African Americans from the end of the Civil War to the present. Issues include the promises and failures of Reconstruction, the Jim Crow era, black leadership and protest institutions, African American cultural styles, industrialization and urbanization, the world wars, the Civil Rights Movement, and conservative retrenchment. (Same as History 2141 {237}.)

2142 c. Reconstruction and Reunion. Spring 2015. Tess Chakkalakal and Patrick Rael.

An interdisciplinary introduction from the perspectives of art history, literary history, and history to the political, economic, and social questions arising from American Reconstruction (1866-1877) and Reunion (1878-1900) following the Civil War between the North and South. Readings delve into a wide array of primary and secondary sources including photographs, novels, poetry, and government documents to understand the fierce political debates rooted in Reconstruction that continue to occupy conceptions of America. (Same as English 2900 and History 2142.)

2201 {201} c - ESD, VPA. Black Women, Politics, Music, and the Divine. Fall 2014.
Judith Casselberry.

Seminar. Examines the convergence of politics and spirituality in the musical work of contemporary black women singer-songwriters in the United States. Analyzes material that interrogates and articulates the intersections of gender, race, class, and sexuality generated across a range of religious and spiritual terrains with African diasporic/black Atlantic spiritual moorings, including Christianity, Islam, and Yoruba. Focuses on material that reveals a womanist (black feminist) perspective by considering the ways resistant identities shape and are shaped by artistic production. Employs an interdisciplinary approach by incorporating ethnomusicology, anthropology, literature, history, and performance and social theory. Explores the work of Shirley Caesar, the Clark Sisters, Meshell Ndegeocello, Abby Lincoln, Sweet Honey in the Rock, and Dianne Reeves, among others. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 2207 {207}, Music 2291{201}, and Religion 2201 {201}.)

[2210 {210} c - IP. Beyond Capoeira: History and Politics of Afro-Brazilian Culture. (Same as History 2871 {200} and Latin American Studies 2110 {221}.)]

2220 {220} b - ESD. “The Wire”: Race, Class, Gender, and the Urban Crisis. Spring 2015. Brian Purnell.

Postwar US cities were considered social, economic, political, and cultural zones of “crisis.” African Americans—their families; gender relations; their relationship to urban political economy, politics, and culture—were at the center of this discourse. Uses David Simon’s epic series The Wire as a critical source on postindustrial urban life, politics, conflict, and economics to cover the origins of the “urban crisis,” the rise of an “underclass” theory of urban class relations, the evolution of the urban “underground economy,” and the ways the “urban crisis” shaped depictions of African Americans in American popular culture. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 2222 {222} and Sociology 2220 {220}.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Africana Studies 1101 {101}, Education 1101 {101}, Gender and Women’s Studies 1101 {101}, or Sociology 1101 {101}, or permission of the instructor.

[2228 {228} c - ESD, VPA. Protest Music.]

2232 {232} c - VPA. Jazz II: Repertory and Performance. Spring 2016. The Theater and Dance Department.

Intermediate repertory students are required to take Dance 2231 {231} (same as Africana Studies 2234 {235}) concurrently. Attendance at all classes is required. Grading is Credit/D/Fail. One-half credit. (Same as Dance 2232 {232}.)

2233 {233} b - ESD, IP. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. Fall 2014. Scott MacEachern.

Introduction to the traditional patterns of livelihood and social institutions of African peoples. Following a brief overview of African geography, habitat, and cultural history, lectures and readings cover a representative range of types of economy, polity, and social organization, from the smallest hunting and gathering societies to the most complex states and empires. Emphasis upon understanding the nature of traditional social forms. Changes in African societies in the colonial and post-colonial periods are examined but are not the principal focus. (Same as Anthropology 2533 {233}.)

Prerequisite: One course in anthropology or Africana Studies 1101 {101}.

2234 {235} c - VPA. Jazz II: Technique. Spring 2016. The Theater and Dance Department.

Extends students’ technical proficiency by increasing practice in jazz dance styles and intricate combinations; students learn dance technique along with the appropriate historical and cultural contexts. Includes vocabulary and variations of jazz and focuses on its roots in social dance heavily influenced by African American traditions. Students have the opportunity to embody various jazz styles such as vintage jazz, Broadway jazz, lyrical jazz, and the jazz techniques of Bob Fosse and Luigi. A series of dance exercises and combinations teach jazz isolations, syncopation, musicality, and performance skills. Through this ongoing physical practice, students gain strength, flexibility, endurance, coordination, and style. Includes a performance requirement and several readings. Attendance at all classes required. Grading is Credit/D/Fail. One-half credit. (Same as Dance 2231 {231}.)

Prerequisite: Dance 1211 {111} or 1221 {121} or permission of the instructor.

[2235 {242} c - ESD, IP. Global Pentecostalism: The Roots and Routes of Twentieth-Century Christianity. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 2229 and Religion 2247 {247}.)]

2240 {240} c. Civil Rights and Black Power Movements in the Making of Modern America. Fall 2015. Brian Purnell.

Examines the political activism, cultural expressions, and intellectual history that gave rise to a modern black freedom movement, and that movement’s impact on the broader American (and international) society. Students study the emergence of community organizing traditions in the southern black belt as well as postwar black activism in US cities; the role the federal government played in advancing civil rights legislation; the internationalism of African American activism; and the relationship between black culture, aesthetics, and movement politics. The study of women and gender is a central component. Using biographies, speeches, and community and organization studies, students analyze the lives and contributions of Martin Luther King Jr., Ella Baker, Septima Clark, Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael, Angela Davis, Huey Newton, and Fannie Lou Hamer, among others. Closely examines the legacies of the modern black freedom movement: the expansion of the black middle class, controversies over affirmative action, and the rise of black elected officials. (Same as History 2220 {228}.)

2271 {271} c - ESD. Spirit Come Down: Religion, Race, and Gender in America. Spring 2015. Judith Casselberry.

Examines the ways religion, race, and gender shape people’s lives from the nineteenth century into contemporary times in America, with particular focus on black communities. Explores issues of self-representation, memory, material culture, embodiment, and civic and political engagement through autobiographical, historical, literary, anthropological, cinematic, and musical texts. (Same as Gender and Women’s Studies 2270 {270} and Religion 2271 {271}.)

2281 c. History of Jazz II. Fall 2014. Tracy McMullen.

Provides a socio-cultural, historical, and analytical introduction to jazz music from around 1950 to the present. Addresses the history of jazz in terms of changes in musical techniques and social values and approaches music as a site of celebration and struggle over relationships and ideals. Builds ability to hear differences among performances and styles. Enriches knowledge of US history as it affects and is affected by musical activities and studies the stakes and motives behind the controversies and debates that have often surrounded various styles of African American music. (Same as Music 2281.)

Prerequisite: Music 1281 {121} (same as Africana Studies 1581 {121}.)

2364 {264} c - ESD, IP. Conquest, Colonialism, and Independence: Africa since 1880. Spring 2015. Olufemi Vaughan.

Focuses on conquest, colonialism, and its legacies in sub-Saharan Africa; the violent process of colonial pacification, examined from European and African perspectives; the different ways of consolidating colonial rule and African resistance to colonial rule, from Maji Maji to Mau Mau; and African nationalism and independence, as experienced by Africa’s nationalist leaders, from Kwame Nkrumah to Jomo Kenyatta, and their critics. Concludes with the limits of independence, mass disenchantment, the rise of the predatory post-colonial state, genocide in the Great Lakes, and the wars of Central Africa. (Same as History 2364 {264}.)

2365 {268} c - IP. Mogadishu to Madagascar: East African History. Spring 2016. David M. Gordon.

Examines the history of East Africa with special focus on the interactions between East Africans and the Indian Ocean world. Begins with African societies prior to Portuguese conquest through Omani colonialism and the spread of slavery across East Africa, Madagascar, and Mauritius. Addresses the onset of British, Italian, and German colonialism; rebellions against colonialism, including Mau Mau in Kenya; and post-colonial conflicts, including the Zanzibar revolution of 1964. Concludes with the rise of post-colonial Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique, Madagascar, and Somalia, and challenges to their sovereignty by present-day Indian Ocean rebels, such as the Somali pirates. (Same as History 2365{265}.)

2380 {247} c - IP. Christianity and Islam in West Africa. Fall 2014. Olufemi Vaughan.

Explores how Christianity, Islam, and indigenous African religious beliefs shaped the formation of West African states, from the nineteenth-century Islamic reformist movements and mission Christianity to the formation of modern nation-states in the twentieth century. While the course provides a broad regional West African overview, careful attention is focused on how religious themes shaped the communities of the Nigerian region—a critical West African region where Christianity and Islam converged to transform a modern state and society. Drawing on primary and secondary historical texts as well as Africanist works in sociology and comparative politics, study of this Nigerian experience illuminates broader West African, African, and global perspectives that underscore the historical significance of religion in politics and society, especially in non-Western contexts. (Same as History 2380 {208}.)

2407 {207} c - ESD, IP. Francophone Cultures. Every fall. Fall 2014. Hanétha Vété-Congolo.

An introduction to the cultures of various French-speaking regions outside of France. Examines the history, politics, customs, cinema, and the arts of the Francophone world, principally Africa and the Caribbean. Increases cultural understanding prior to study abroad in French-speaking regions. (Same as French 2407 {207} and Latin American Studies 2407 {206}.)

Prerequisite: French 2305 {205} or higher, placement in French 2407, or permission of the instructor.

2411 {209} c - ESD, IP. Introduction to the Study and Criticism of Francophone Literature. Every spring. Spring 2015. Hanétha Vété-Congolo.

Introduces students to the literary tradition of the Francophone world. Focuses on major authors and literary movements in historical and cultural context. Conducted in French. (Same as French 2411 {211} and Latin American Studies 2211 {213}.)

Prerequisite: French 2305 {205} or higher, or permission of the instructor.

2502 c - ESD, VPA. Introduction to Black Performance Studies. Fall 2014. Christina Knight.

What does it mean to say that we “perform” our identities? What role can performance play in the fight for racial and social justice? What role has performance played in shaping the history of black Americans, a people long denied access to literacy? Performance studies—an interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of a range of aesthetic practices—offers insight into such questions. Investigates various performances, including contemporary plays, movies and television, dance, and social media. Examines the relationship between identities like race, gender, class, and performance as well as the connection between performance onstage and everyday life. (Same as Dance 2503 and Theater 2503.)

2530 {222} b - IP. Politics and Societies in Africa. Fall 2014. Ericka A. Albaugh.

Surveys societies and politics in sub-Saharan Africa, seeking to understand the sources of current conditions and the prospects for political stability and economic growth. Looks briefly at pre-colonial society and colonial influence on state-construction in Africa and concentrates on three broad phases in Africa’s contemporary political development: independence and consolidation of authoritarian rule; economic decline and challenges to authoritarianism; democratization and civil conflict. Presumes no prior knowledge of the region. (Same as Government 2530 {222}.)

2583 {283} c. Literature of the Civil War Era. Spring 2015. Tess Chakkalakal.

Examines literature published in the United States between 1861 and 1865, with particular emphasis on the wartime writings of Louisa May Alcott, William Wells Brown, Frederick Douglass, William Gilmore Simms, Herman Melville, and Walt Whitman. Students also consider writings of less well-known writers of the period found in popular magazines such as Harper’s Monthly, The Atlantic Monthly, The Southern Illustrated News, and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper. Note: This course fulfills the literature of the Americas requirement for English majors. (Same as English 2583 {264}.)

2600 {261} c. African American Poetry. Fall 2014. Elizabeth Muther.

African American poetry as counter-memory—from Wheatley to the present—with a focus on oral traditions, activist literary discourses, trauma and healing, and productive communities. Special emphasis on the past century: dialect and masking; the Harlem Renaissance; Brown, Brooks, and Hayden at mid-century; the Black Arts Movement; black feminism; and contemporary voices. Note: Fulfills the literature of the Americas requirement for English majors. (Same as English 2600 {261}.)

2604 c. African American Literature and Visual Culture. Spring 2015. Elizabeth Muther.

Explores creative collaborations and cross currents in African American literary and visual arts over the past century. Considers the problems of minstrelsy, masking, and caricature—as well as instruments of militant image-making in both literary and visual forms. Topics of special interest include uplift and documentary photography; modernist resistance languages of the Harlem Renaissance; shadows, silhouettes, and invisibility; comic strips and graphic narratives; and contemporary images—prints, texts, and illustrations—that introduce alternative socio-political allegories. Taught in conjunction with a special exhibition at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. (Same as English 2604.)

[2621 {238} c. Reconstruction. (Same as History 2621 {238}.)]

2700 {244} c - ESD. Martin, Malcolm, and America. Spring 2015. Brian Purnell.

Seminar. Examines the lives and thoughts of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. Traces the development in their thinking and examines the similarities and differences between them. Evaluates their contribution to the African American freedom struggle, American society, and the world. Emphasizes very close reading of primary and secondary material, use of audio and videocassettes, lecture presentations and class discussions. In addition to being an academic study of these two men’s political and religious commitment, also concerns how they inform our own political and social lives. (Same as History 2700 {279}.)

2735 b - IP. Contemporary Haiti. Spring 2015. Greg Beckett.

Examines contemporary Haitian culture and society in the context of a prolonged series of crises and international interventions. Focuses on the democratic transition of the late twentieth century and the recent humanitarian intervention in the wake of a series of natural disasters. Considers the historical roots of the Haitian crisis with a particular focus on Haiti’s marginalization within the world system. Explores the relationship between Haiti and the international community, especially the role of nongovernmental organizations, humanitarian organizations, and international institutions in the everyday lives of Haitians. (Same as Anthropology 2735 and Latin American Studies 2735.)

Prerequisite: One of the following: Anthropology 1101 {101}, Sociology 1101 {101}, or Africana Studies 1101 {101}.

2821 {269} c - ESD, IP. After Apartheid: South African History and Historiography. Spring 2016. David M. Gordon.

Seminar. Investigates the diverse representations and uses of the past in South Africa. Begins with the difficulties in developing a critical and conciliatory version of the past in post-apartheid South Africa during and after the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Turns to diverse historical episodes and sites of memory from the Great Trek to the inauguration of Nelson Mandela to explore issues of identity and memory from the perspectives of South Africa’s various peoples. (Same as History 2821 {269})

2822 {272} c - IP. Warlords and Child Soldiers in African History. Fall 2015. David M. Gordon.

Seminar. Examines how gender, age, religion, and race have informed ideologies of violence by considering various historical incarnations of the African warrior across time, including the hunter, the military slave, the revolutionary, the mercenary, the soldier, the warlord, the holy warrior, and the child soldier. Focuses on how fighters, followers, African civilians, and the international community have imagined the “work of war” in Africa. Readings include scholarly analyses of warfare, warriors, and warrior ideals alongside memoirs and fictional representations. (Same as History 2822 {272}.)

2840 {213} c. Transnational Africa and Globalization. Fall 2014. Olufemi Vaughan.

Seminar. Drawing on key readings on the historical sociology of transnationalism since World War II, examines how postcolonial African migrations transformed African states and their new transnational populations in Western countries. Discusses what concepts such as the nation state, communal identity, global relations, and security mean in the African context in order to critically explore complex African transnational experiences and globalization. These dynamic African transnational encounters encourage discussions on homeland and diaspora, tradition and modernity, gender, and generation. (Same as History 2840 {213}.)

[2841 {216} c. History of African and African Diasporic Political Thought. (Same as History 2841 {216}.)]

2862 c. The Haitian Revolution and its Legacy. Fall 2014. Allen Wells.

Seminar. Examines one of the most neglected revolutions in history and arguably one of its most significant. The first half of the course treats the Revolution’s causes and tracks its evolution between 1791-1804. The second part studies its aftermath and its impact on Haiti, the Caribbean, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and the United States. (Same as History 2862 and Latin American Studies 2162.)

Prerequisite: One course in history or Latin American studies, or permission of the instructor.

[2901 b - IP. Archaeology of the Black Atlantic. (Same as Anthropology 2901.)]

2970–2973 {291–294}. Intermediate Independent Study in Africana Studies. The Program.

2999 {299}. Intermediate Collaborative Study in Africana Studies. The Program.

3004 {326} c. African American Literature and the Law. Fall 2014. Tess Chakkalakal.

Examines the intersections between literature and law through works of African American literature. Investigates the influence of landmark legal cases—Dred Scott, Plessy v. Fergusson, Brown v. Board of Education, Loving v. Virginia—on the production and dissemination of particular works of American and African American literature. Works by Charles Chesnutt, Ralph Ellison, Pauline Hopkins, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Frederick Douglass are among those considered. Note: Fulfills the literature of the Americas requirement for English majors. (Same as English 3004 {326}.)

Prerequisite: One course numbered 2000–2969 {200–289} in English or Africana studies.

3140 {336} c. Research in Nineteenth-Century United States History. Spring 2016. Patrick Rael.

A research course for majors and interested non-majors that culminates in a twenty-five- to thirty-page research paper. With the professor’s consent, students may choose any topic in Civil War or African American history, broadly defined. Presents the opportunity to delve into Bowdoin’s collections of primary historical source documents. (Same as History 3140 {336}.)

Prerequisite: One course in history.

[3211 c. Bringing the Female Maroon to Memory: Female Marronage and Douboutism in the Caribbean.]

[3306 c. The Common Good? A History of International Aid. (Same as History 3360.)]

3570 b. Advanced Seminar in African Politics. Spring 2015. Ericka A. Albaugh.

The continent of Africa boasts some of the most rapidly growing economies in the world, but the proportion of people living in poverty remains higher than in any other region. Nearly all African states experimented with democratic reform in the last two decades, but many leaders have become adept at using political institutions to entrench their power. Most large-scale civil wars have ended, but violence remains. Explores the economic, political, and security challenges of this continent of contrasts. Topics include poverty and economic growth, the “resource curse,” democratic institutions, civil society, ethnic relations, state failure, foreign assistance, and intervention. (Same as Government 3570.)

Prerequisite: Government 2530 {222 }(same as Africana Studies 2530 {222}) or History 2364 {264} (same as Africana Studies 2364 {264}); or permission of the instructor.

[3600 c. Race and Visual Representation in American Art, 1619-1999. (Same as Art History 3600.)]

4000–4003 {401–404}. Advanced Independent Study in Africana Studies. The Program.

4029 {405}. Advanced Collaborative Study in Africana Studies. The Program.

4050–4051. Honors Project in Africana Studies. The Program.


Online Catalogue content is current as of August 1, 2014. For most current course information, use the online course finder. Also see Addenda.