The Instruments

The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ)

The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ)The ECBQ grew from an effort to supplement the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ), which was developed by Dr. Hill Goldsmith at the University of Wisconsin and described in the Child Development article, "Studying temperament via construction of the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire" (Goldsmith, 1996).The new instrument includes scales developed by Dr. Rothbart and her students that measure several aspects of temperament not included in the TBAQ.

A preliminary form of the ECBQ was given to 138 parents of toddlers in 1998 and 1999. Based on the findings from that effort, existing scales were revised and new scales were added. A second experimental form was administered to 320 parents in 2000. Analysis of this form resulted in the final version of the ECBQ, which contains 18 scales and 201 items. Because the new measure only overlaps slightly with the TBAQ, the instrument has been named The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) to avoid confusion. Short (107 items; 18 scales) and Very Short (36 items; 3 broad scales) forms of the ECBQ were developed in 2009.

In 2011, Jennifer Vu adapted the Very Short Form of the ECBQ for use with preschool teachers. Her adaptation is available on our download page.


The following non-English versions of the ECBQ are available for download:


The Questionnaire

The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire has been designed to assess temperament in children between the ages of 18 and 36 months.The ECBQ assesses the following dimensions of temperament:

For questions regarding the ECBQ, contact Samuel Putnam at (postal mail: Department of Psychology, Bowdoin College, 6900 College Station, Brunswick, ME 04011)

Please note that these questionnaires are to be used for research purposes only. If you are interested in acquiring current versions of these instruments, we request that you first complete our request form, providing us with a brief description of your plans for use of the measures. Following the completion of your research, we request that you contact us to inform us of the results of your project as they relate to the temperament scales.In this way, we hope to coordinate attempts at validation of the scales.


Putnam, S. P., Gartstein, M. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2006). Measurement of fine-grained aspects of toddler temperament: The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development, 29 (3), 386-401.

Putnam, S. P., Jacobs, J., Gartstein, M. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2010, March). Development and assessment of short and very short forms of the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Poster presented at International Conference on Infant Studies, Baltimore, MD.
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